Summary of Capitulo III. Unitarios.

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The video discusses the political movement known as "unitarianism," which was popular in Argentina during the 19th century. The movement aimed to create a new nation out of what had been a portion of the Spanish empire, but it ultimately failed. The video discusses the origins of the project and how its proponents intended for it to benefit the people of Argentina.

  • 00:00:00 This video is about the political movement known as "unitarianism." Unitarianism was a popular political movement in Argentina during the 19th century, and it aimed to create a new nation out of what had been a portion of the Spanish empire. The video discusses the project's origins and how its proponents intended for it to benefit the people of Argentina. Unitarianism ultimately failed, but its legacy remains to this day.
  • 00:05:00 The video discusses the changes that took place in Argentina after its independence from Spain, including the establishment of a new state with a new, institutional basis and a new, economy focused on cattle farming for export. New government made many changes, including a law which granted voting rights to all men over 21, eliminated the city councils of Buenos Aires, and strengthened the power of the legislative branch that chose the governor. The government also affirmed freedom of the press and founded the University of Buenos Aires. It reduced the army and reformed the church, abolishing religious orders and transferring their property to the new state. The government encouraged agricultural expansion by granting land nearly free to large producers, and favored immigration. By the end of the video, the government had entered the global market for capital and taken a loan from Brazilian creditors. Soon after, the loan became un-payable, and the government was forced to fight a war of independence with Brazil using borrowed money. These measures led to a debt that was very difficult to pay. Overall, the changes implemented by the Rivadavia government were designed to promote economic growth and prosperity for the country's landowners and free traders, as well as to distance the country from those who practiced traditional activities. The effects of these changes were initially positive, but
  • 00:10:00 In the late 18th century, Buenos Aires underwent a period of political and social change known as the virreinal era. This period saw the rise of a group of reformers called Rivadavia, who aimed to organize the cityspaces more effectively, integrating various social sectors into a more active and dynamic public sphere. One of the reforms they promoted was the reading of newspapers in public spaces, so that the most ileterate members of society would become more familiar with the ideas discussed in them. One of the objectives of these urban reforms was to try to stabilize the city's spatial arrangement, and this is why Rivadavia's group is so critical of the original circular layout created by Governor José de Garay. They thought that if space could be regulated, society could be regulated as well. This project ultimately failed, as it was extremely difficult to achieve consensus on any governmental reforms during the virreinal era. The end of the virreinal era saw the rise of two competing political ideologies, unitarios (those who supported unitary government through centralized rule by the state) and federales (those who favored a federal government in which provincial autonomy would be preserved). The unitarios won the majority of support in the Congress of Buenos Aires in 1823
  • 00:15:00 The third chapter of the video discusses the unitarian movement in Argentina, which began when the provinces supported a rebellion by the eastern band against Brazilian rule. The congress passed a law designating the president in February of 1826, and the unitarians used the opportunity to impose President Rívadavia, who promulgated the law of capitalization, which instituted good faith status for Buenos Aires as the nation's capital. The division of the province into two new districts was implemented by the law. The law generated sympathies among some representatives of the interior because it would allow shared revenue from the Buenos Aires port. However, this was not enough to counter the dissatisfaction of several groups of good faithaires - among them economic sectors who felt the private law of customs monopoly was unjust. The unitarians redoubled their efforts and promulgated a constitution stating that "the Argentine nation adopts the representative republican form consolidated in unity of regime." This was a major step in organizing unitary rule, as most of the provinces rejected the constitution, seeing it as an assault on their autonomy. Fights between the two parties escalated, and military engagements broke out between them. The unruly unitarian said one had a river of blood running through his veins, and an article on the subject
  • 00:20:00 In Argentina, a civil war was fought between unitarios (supporters of the Federalist Party) and federales (supporters of the Independentist Party). The decisive battle took place when the new Governor of Buenos Aires, Manuel Dorrego, removed a military leader who had participated in the fight for independence and was the leader of the federales in the city, and he was executed in 1828. Another military leader, who had intervened in the fight for independence, Juan Lavalle, became the leader of the unitarios. This moment tragic gave rise to a civil war in all of Argentina which ended with the victory of the federalism and marked the failure of the unitario project. The execution of Dorrego by the Valley led to the support of the solitarios, making the unitario project practically nonexistent. This period marks the definitive end of the unitario project, as well as the disappearance of the name unitario. The former unitarios continued to fight against Rosas, and after his fall, the Liberal Party, which had arrived to power first in Buenos Aires, and later in other provinces, re-embraced the unitario project and in particular to the figure of Rivadavia. Without proposing a model of the country as a

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