Summary of Bajas Temperaturas (Universo Mecánico 48)

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00:00:00 - 00:25:00

The video discusses how extreme temperatures can be used to freeze gases. It explains how the process of compression and freezing is used to lower the temperature of a liquid (tea) to the point where it is frozen solid. The video also discusses the work of Michael Faraday, who is known for his work on electricity and magnetism, as well as his work on temperature.

  • 00:00:00 In this video, a bajas temperature experiment is explained. The bajas temperature experiment involves freezing a liquid (tea) and then compressing the air around it to lower the temperature even further. This process of compression and freezing is repeated several times until the liquid is frozen solid and the air has been compressed 4 times. Faraday's discovery of chlorine gas and his subsequent experiments with other gases are shown.
  • 00:05:00 In this video, Michael Faraday is discussed. Faraday is known for his work on electricity and magnetism. He is also known for his work on temperature, which led to the discovery of the point of critical temperature. This point of critical temperature is different for each substance, and was discovered by a similar physicist, Pierre-Simon Laplace, long before Faraday. Faraday also developed the idea of latent heat.
  • 00:10:00 The video discusses how, although it appears to be the opposite, liquid also cools down in the process. The music plays as images of frigid, calm landscapes are shown. The molecules move slowly when heated, and the higher the temperature, the faster they move. The faster they move, the more energy they have. When the temperature increases, the more rapid molecules escape, leaving behind the slower and colder molecules. As they struggle to escape, the more rapid molecules lose energy and freeze. The vapor and liquid that remains cool in the process of evaporating both cool down by the process of vaporization. The vapor cools down faster than the liquid does, and both vapor and liquid that remains cool by evaporating are cooled by the process of vaporization to the ambient temperature. Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Faraday, and other scientists such as Michael Faraday were inspired to continue working on refrigeration techniques in the 19th century when they discovered that carbon dioxide (dioxin) has special refrigerant properties. The critical temperature of carbon dioxide is higher than the temperature of the ambient air, and if I had carbon dioxide in this room, but high pressure, the dioxin would be a liquid at room temperature. This is
  • 00:15:00 The video discusses extreme temperatures that are below the freezing point of ice, and although it would make no sense and pass the next test, there is a next step that has been shown to be correct - a process called cascading freezing. MUSIC plays in the background as temperature descendents are shown. Like water that falls from a level to another, the freezing process occurs in a cascade of temperatures, with the liquid serving as a bath for another cooling down. The licuacion of oxygen needs additional steps, one of which was the invention of the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger consists of two long tubes, one on each side. When a cold fluid enters one end, and a hot fluid enters the other, movement in opposite directions occurs. The cold fluid leaves at nearly the same temperature as the hot fluid enters, but this attraction is not strong enough to liquefy the gas without liquid. However, when the gas expands through an opening or a nozzle, the principles of evaporation still apply, and the molecules that escape decrease in speed and freeze. Today's achievements in terms of freezing gases using the principles of conservation of energy were made possible by the team of Joe Johnson and William Williamson, who united as forces
  • 00:20:00 The video discusses how the weather in lower-latitude countries such as Holland can be advantageous for early career scientific researchers. In the late 1800s, James Ward (the first person to successfully liquefy helium) was a highly respected scientist at the University of Leiden in Holland. Ward's accomplishments in the field of liquefaction led to him being one of the most influential scientists of his time and he is still considered a pioneer in the field. Cameron, a British scientist, was the first to successfully liquefy helium at a temperature of just 4 degrees Kelvin above absolute zero. Ward's accomplishments in this field opened up new scientific frontiers that are still being explored today.
  • 00:25:00 In Green Bay, Wisconsin, the temperature can reach 40 degrees below zero, and that worries me often. Players make a lot of money, and fans don't seem to care. I don't care as much about the fans, because anyone who goes to a game in such weather is entitled to what happens to them. Even the commentators don't concern me, because they're probably insulated behind a glass panel, safe and sound. The thing that worries me the most is the value itself. I have the impression that these temperatures can have a destructive effect on the ball, and that's something that should never happen with wooden balls. Tradition, ethics.

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