Summary of Macromoléculas

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In this video, the four biomolecules that make up all living organisms are introduced. It is explained how these elements are key to the survival of all living organisms. The two types of cells are introduced, and it is explained how the four biomolecules are used by each type of cell. Finally, the three main types of biomolecules are discussed in detail.

  • 00:00:00 This video introduces the concept of macromolecules and their properties. All living organisms on Earth share a common ancestor because it is known this way based on the four biomolecules that are called carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and amino acids. These four elements make up all living organisms, and from this we have deduced that the common ancestor took energy and basic elements of its survival from these same four biomolecules. There are two evolutionary types of cells known as prokaryotic cells or primitive cells and eucaryotic cells, which are more evolved. Prokaryotic cells were the first organisms on Earth, and it is believed that they were responsible for forming those four basic biomolecules and using them as key elements for survival. We see then another important characteristic of these organisms, which is that they use biomolecules as a source of energy in different ways. We find two groups of organisms here: those that are photosynthetic and use light as their energy source, and those that are chemoautotrophic and use chemical substances as their energy source. Both groups of organisms use specifically the four biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and amino acids. This is why we can speak of a
  • 00:05:00 In this video, 25 different amino acids are discussed, their properties, and how they can be combined to form peptides. This is called a peptide bond reaction, and when multiple amino acids are combined, it is called a peptide chain. Proteins are made of amino acids, and their primary role is to carry out many cellular functions. Carbohydrates are also important biomolecules, and specifically, polysaccharides. When two monosaccharides are combined, it is called a glucoside. When two or more carbohydrates are combined, it is called a polysaccharide. Nucleotides are made of three elements, and their primary function is to carry genetic information.
  • 00:10:00 This video discusses the three main types of biomolecules: proteins, lipids, and DNA. The main role of biomolecules is to form the cells' outer membranes, and their chemical properties and general properties are discussed.

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