Summary of Las reformas Borbónicas (Cap. 3)

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The video discusses the Borbónic reforms, which were a series of deep reforms to control colonies in America instituted by the Spanish monarchy in the second half of the 18th century. These measures led to increased taxes and forced loans, and a rise in discontent that eventually led to the first Mexican independence movements.

  • 00:00:00 The video discusses the Spanish monarchy's efforts to reform its economy in the second half of the 18th century, which led to the bankruptcy of Carlos III and Carlos IV. These kings instituted a series of deep reforms to control their colonies in America known as the Borbónic reforms. These measures led to increased taxes and forced loans, and a rise in discontent that eventually led to the first Mexican independence movements.
  • 00:05:00 The Borbónic Dynasty, which ruled Spain from 1479 to 1516, is known for its aggressive expansionism and its numerous reforms. One of these was the imposition of a strict autocratic government, based on efficient taxation, in which the king and his officials were thoroughly enriched. The new ruler, Charles III, tried to correct the many flaws that existed in his colonies in the New World. He was inspired by the ideas of the so-called " enlightened despotism " popular among many European monarchs at the time. These rulers changed their form of government, constructing an authoritarian and efficient government obsessed with extracting as much wealth as possible from their territories. The Spanish state's sudden thirst for resources was also motivated by the fashion at the time, as well as by genuine emergency, weakened by the overwhelming defeat in the so-called " Seven Years War " (1578-1648), in which the Spanish empire in America was lost to the English. Charles III found no better man to carry out these reforms than José de Galvez, a 41-year-old native of Málaga, with great political experience and a strong conviction that the necessary measures should be taken. Galvez toured the territories under Spanish control in North America for years,
  • 00:10:00 The Borbónic period in Spain saw a dramatic rise in the power of the monarch, who became a monopolist of sorts and the second-most profitable business in all of Spanish territory. As well, the monarchy allowed the sale of alcohol, which had been considered illegal, through the royal estanco. This new business opportunity was especially appealing to the royals, as it provided new, attractive sources of income. The crown also abolished the old system of government and privileges, dividing Spanish North America into twelve "real intendencías." This new organizational structure allowed for better management of the new Spain, as the old alcaldes mayores were replaced by officials who were responsible for making the most important economic decisions. Justice and military action were handled differently than in the past, with the new intendentes being subject to a fixed salary and having to obey strict royal orders. This territorial organization proved to be a source of conflict at first, as the new boundaries between the intendencías caused friction between the various regions. However, the reforms eventually led to the formation of the present-day Mexican Republic. Despite initially facing resistance, the Borbónic reforms led to significant changes in Spanish government policy. This
  • 00:15:00 The Borbónic period in Spain saw many reforms aimed at increasing the Crown's revenue and reducing the power of the nobility. One of these measures was the forced donation of church funds to the Crown. This created resentment among the Spanish people, who began to think of independence as a way to escape the Crown's abuse. During the Borbónic period, the Crown also took advantage of the country's weak economy by issuing loans to wealthy and poor Spanish citizens. This led to the development of a small but rebellious group of intellectuals who were inspired by the ideas of the French and American revolutions. Despite these efforts, the idea of independence began to spread among the Spanish people during the Borbónic period. This was in part due to the efforts of a small but vocal group of intellectuals, many of whom were educated in the United States. Eventually, the Crown grew too concerned about the spread of revolution to allow the independence of Spain's colonies.
  • 00:20:00 The video discusses the effects of the Borbónic reforms, which led to increased freedom and independence for non-Spaniards. These reforms were common among educated people, but not just that part of the population. The formation of provincial militias to defend Spanish borders was also common among common men in those places, and strengthened the conviction that one could succeed on their own without the arrogant Spanish authority. Although this sentiment had more of a local than national feeling, it would eventually grow into a national identity in its own right. The Borbónic reforms also led to a surge in Mexican economic growth, but this would not be reached again until 100 years later during the Porfiriato. This period saw the Spanish government take away vast amounts of resources from Mexico, causing the country's economy to collapse.

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