Summary of Historia de todas y cada una de las ciencias, contada en 55 minutos

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This YouTube video titled "Historia de todas y cada una de las ciencias, contada en 55 minutos" provides an overview of the history of various scientific disciplines. It emphasizes the importance of mathematics as the foundation of understanding the universe and explores the evolution of mathematics, biology, geology, chemistry, physics, and astronomy as separate scientific disciplines. The video highlights key figures and moments in the development of each field, such as Copernicus' theory of heliocentrism, Darwin's theory of evolution, and Newton's principles of physics. The speaker emphasizes the continuous progress of science throughout history and the role of historical context in shaping scientific knowledge. Ultimately, the video argues that the scientific revolution transformed our understanding of the natural world and led to the establishment of science as we know it today.

  • 00:00:00 In this section, the speaker introduces the topic of the conference titled "Historia de todas y cada una de las ciencias, contada en 55 minutos" (History of each and every science, told in 55 minutes). The speaker, Francisco González Redondo, is a professor at the Complutense University of Madrid and has previously spoken about inventors and the age of Spanish sciences. He mentions that he will not be discussing history, but rather focusing on teaching and the importance of the educational system in the field of science. The speaker emphasizes that the first day of class in a science-related program, such as mathematics or physics, often involves filling the blackboard with theorems and their proofs. The speaker explains that in order to understand these theorems, one must first establish the primary concepts and axioms, and accept them as the foundation of the subject. The speaker concludes by stating that the structure of teaching would remain the same regardless of the complexity of the theorem being proven.
  • 00:05:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the difference between the mathematics taught in secondary school and the mathematics taught in university. The speaker suggests that what is taught in secondary school can be considered as "proto-mathematics," as it is a precursor to the more advanced concepts that will be taught in university. The mathematics taught in secondary school is more focused on practical examples and measurements, while university mathematics is more theoretical and deductive. The speaker also mentions the importance of historical context, such as the time period in which Miguel de Cervantes lived, in understanding the development of different sciences.
  • 00:10:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the historical context of Spain and England during the time of Miguel de Cervantes and William Shakespeare. They highlight the differences in the monarchies of the two countries, with Spain having vast territories and powerful kings, while England is ruled by two queens. The speaker then focuses on the sciences of the time, mentioning juridical sciences, chivalry, spiritual sciences, medicine, astrology, and mathematics. They question whether these disciplines can truly be considered sciences, with subjective opinions influencing the field of jurisprudence and the inclusion of beliefs in spiritual sciences. Ultimately, they identify mathematics as the only true science during the period, before moving on to discuss the Copernican revolution.
  • 00:15:00 In this section, the narrator discusses the publication of Nicolás Copérnico's book "Revolution of the Celestial Orbs" in 1543, which presented the idea that the Earth revolves around the Sun. The narrator explains that at the time, the world was filled with individuals who believed in a geocentric model, where the Earth was stationary and the Sun moved. Despite Copérnico's revolutionary idea, it took time for the news to spread due to the lack of technology like the internet. Additionally, the narrator mentions that Galileo Galilei faced condemnation by the Inquisition for supporting Copernican theory, further hindering the acceptance of this new scientific perspective. However, Thomas Kuhn later argued that it wasn't a Copernican revolution but rather a scientific revolution, as the new ideas in astronomy brought about changes in other disciplines as well. The narrator concludes that this period should be referred to as a scientific revolution rather than a Copernican revolution, emphasizing the transformative impact it had on various scientific fields.
  • 00:20:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the key aspects of science during the time of Francis Bacon, Cervantes, and Shakespeare. They explore the need for experimentation, hypothesis formulation, and theory contrast. The language used in science is also highlighted, with mathematics being described as the language for understanding the universe. The speaker mentions Galileo's quote about God writing the universe in the language of mathematics. However, they point out that during this time, basic geometry alone was not sufficient to understand the universe. The lack of analysis and other mathematical concepts posed a challenge. The speaker raises the question of when science can be considered mature. They also discuss the origins of mathematics and the recognition of Euclid's Elements as the first mathematical theory, leading to the development of mathematics as a science.
  • 00:25:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the history of mathematics and how the concept of mathematical science evolved over time. They highlight the importance of Euclid's Elements as the first organized mathematical concepts and the development of axioms and theorems. The history of mathematics is then divided into different periods, from ancient to modern times. The speaker also transitions to the history of biology, emphasizing that the field became a science with the formulation of the first biological theory by Charles Darwin in his book "On the Origin of Species". Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection is considered the foundation of modern biology and marked the beginning of its scientific study.
  • 00:30:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the concept of artificial selection and the struggle for existence in biology. They explain how humans are capable of creating variations artificially, which led to the development of the theory of evolution in the 19th century. The speaker also mentions the difficulties in understanding the laws governing these variations and the contributions of geology and fossils to the field of biology. They highlight the importance of having a conceptual framework for scientific progress and touch on the history of biology from the 17th century onwards, including the development of the concept of species and the use of instruments like the microscope. Finally, they introduce the field of geology and the question of the origin of mountains, emphasizing the need for accurate questions and answers in scientific inquiry.
  • 00:35:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the origins of geology and biology, stating that they were not very scientific at first. The concept of fossils changed the questions being asked, leading to a more scientific approach. The speaker also mentions debates about the origin of fossils, with some scientists arguing that a flood could be the cause. However, the speaker highlights that these questions and answers were not truly scientific. It is only when geology is freed from non-scientific inquiries and answers that it can be considered a science. The speaker then moves on to discuss the development of chemistry as a science, mentioning the importance of measurement, experimentation, and the formulation of laws and hypotheses. Antoine Lavoisier is mentioned as a key figure in the establishment of chemistry as a science.
  • 00:40:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the transition from alchemy to chemistry, which is seen in figures like Boyle. They then move on to the prehistory of chemistry, mentioning the use of pigments in Altamira. The protohistory of chemistry is also mentioned, with the introduction of water as a key component. Moving forward to the time of Cervantes, it is noted that there were not many sciences during that time, with the Middle Ages being referred to as a desert in terms of scientific development. The importance of the Quadrivium in the medieval period is highlighted, particularly in relation to cathedral schools. The speaker argues that the first scientific renaissance can be traced back to the Iberian Peninsula, where the translation of classical texts from Arabic to Latin played a significant role in the dissemination of knowledge across Europe. Mathematicians like Aristotle and Archimedes were introduced to Europe through these translations, setting the foundation for future scientific developments. Lastly, it is noted that Galileo's works drew upon the contributions of mathematicians from the Middle Ages, emphasizing the continuity of scientific progress throughout history.
  • 00:45:00 In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the Renaissance and its significance in the birth of science in Europe. He emphasizes that the Spanish Renaissance was the first and played a crucial role in the development of science by introducing new perspectives and knowledge. The speaker explains that this Renaissance was based on mathematics rather than physics, as the history of mathematics can be traced back to the time of Cervantes and the other sciences discussed are later developments. He highlights the contributions of the Arabs in adding a new dimension to mathematics and challenging the accepted beliefs of the time. Furthermore, he mentions that the peninsular region introduced new knowledge in geology and geography, disproving previous notions and opening up possibilities for questioning the geocentric model of the universe. The speaker argues that during this time, there was a transition from the classical Greek tradition to the new Renaissance ideas, and this laid the groundwork for the understanding of God's work through the language of mathematics.
  • 00:50:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the history of physics and its development as a scientific discipline. They explain that physics did not exist during the time of Cervantes and Shakespeare, and it was only with Newton's principles in 1687 that the first theory of physics with undefined concepts and axioms was formulated. The speaker also mentions that Newton's principles did not contain analytical formulations or equations, but rather expressed relationships of proportionality between quantities. It wasn't until later, in 1752, that Newton's first law of dynamics was formulated as an equality between measures of quantities. The speaker states that physics became a proper scientific discipline when the primary magnitudes and axioms of the theory were clearly defined and mathematically organized. They also touch on the proto-physics of Galileo and the ancient Greeks, explaining that physics as a science required observing and mathematically studying phenomena using tools provided by geometry, arithmetic, and trigonometry. The introduction of new magnitudes such as time, velocity, mass, and force was necessary for explaining planetary motion and establishing astronomy as a science.
  • 00:55:00 In this section, the video discusses the history of astronomy as a science. It starts with Plato's establishment of a formula that stated the movements in the universe had to be circular and the Earth had to be in the center. However, these conditions did not correspond to reality. Euclid then attempted to systematize astronomical knowledge, followed by the introduction of the theory of cycles and epicycles by Apollonius. However, it wasn't until the time of Napoleon that a more scientific approach was taken, with the publication of "The System of the World" and "Celestial Mechanics." These works provided equations and observations that made the hypothesis of God unnecessary in explaining the movements of planets. The video concludes that before 1800, astronomy still relied on the idea of a creator, but with the advancements made by Newton and Kepler, the study of astronomy became more scientific and less dependent on the existence of God.

01:00:00 - 01:25:00

The YouTube video titled "Historia de todas y cada una de las ciencias, contada en 55 minutos" provides a comprehensive overview of the history and development of various scientific disciplines. The speaker discusses the transition from prehistory to protohistory and finally to history and highlights the importance of scientific thinking and experimentation. They mention the contributions of notable figures such as Copernicus, Cervantes, and Shakespeare and discuss the role of mathematics in the development of fields like chemistry and physics. The speaker also addresses viewers' suggestions and clarifies their framework for studying the history of different sciences. They emphasize the ongoing nature of scientific progress and the need to integrate other disciplines into the study of history. Overall, the video provides a brief yet informative overview of the history of science and emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary approaches.

  • 01:00:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the transition from prehistory to protohistory and finally to history, emphasizing the importance of scientific thinking and experimentation. They highlight the significance of Copernicus and the works of Cervantes and Shakespeare in shaping a new era of scientific thought. The speaker acknowledges the role of mathematics in the development of various fields, such as chemistry and physics, and mentions the importance of statistical studies in the formulation of evolutionary theory. They also mention the contributions of Spanish scientists, such as Nicolas Monardes, in the field of medicine during the country's colonial period. The speaker concludes by stating that while they have provided a brief history of various sciences in 55 minutes, there is still much to explore in the contemporary and modern history of these disciplines, with the understanding that Spain's involvement has been limited.
  • 01:05:00 In this section, the speaker responds to a question about a book called "De Rerum Natura" by the Roman poet Lucretius. The book was lost and later rediscovered in the Middle Ages or Renaissance period in a monastery, possibly in Northern Italy or Germany. The book apparently eliminated the hypothesis of God and explained the relationships between things in the universe without relying on God. The speaker acknowledges the existence of the book but admits to not having read it yet. He emphasizes the importance of interpreting historical texts carefully, as many misconceptions can arise from misinterpretations of both Lucretius and Saint Augustine. Overall, he encourages further study and integration of different philosophical and scientific perspectives.
  • 01:10:00 In this section, the speaker addresses some critical considerations and suggestions made by viewers. One suggestion was to include a temporal map at the end of the presentation to compare different sciences throughout history. The speaker also clarifies that the framework they presented was adapted from their father and mentor, who prepared it for a philosophical aspect of a physical theory. They explain that certain concepts in physics, such as absolute space and time, originated from the proto-theory and were not unique to the theory itself. The speaker also shares their personal experience of constructing the history of dimensional analysis in mathematics. Inspired by their father, they transitioned from the philosophy of physics to the history of different sciences. They highlight the importance of determining the historical object and how the concept of derivative, for example, required a proto-history and pre-concepts to develop. Finally, the speaker mentions their proposal to enrich the concepts of prehistory and protohistory in museums and historical narratives, suggesting that the history starts when writing begins.
  • 01:15:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the origins of writing and its manifestation in different territories. They explain that while writing is present in Mesopotamia, pictograms found in caves in the Cantabrian region also indicate early forms of writing. The speaker emphasizes that the ability to write is inherent in our species and that different regions developed writing at different times. They propose that from the emergence of Homo species in Africa to the appearance of our species, there is a prehistoric period where writing is not yet discovered but the capacity for it exists. The speaker suggests using the prefixes "pre-" and "proto-" to describe these stages in the history of human writing. They also highlight that the history of science is ongoing, and the conference should acknowledge that the story continues beyond what is currently known. Overall, the speaker presents a timeline of the development of writing and emphasizes the ongoing nature of scientific progress.
  • 01:20:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the history of mathematics and physics as sciences. They explain that mathematics as a science begins with Euclid, while physics starts with Newton. They also mention that there are ancient, modern, and contemporary periods in the evolution of these sciences. However, they highlight the need for a unifying theory in physics that bridges the macroscopic and microscopic worlds. The speaker acknowledges that science and scientists continue to work and create, but there are still limitations to current knowledge and language. They suggest that mathematics plays a crucial role in formulating and predicting scientific theories, but it is lacking in certain areas such as psychology and sociology. The speaker concludes by emphasizing the importance of developing a mathematical framework for these fields in order for them to truly become sciences.
  • 01:25:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the role of history in integrating other disciplines into its study. They mention that disciplines such as mathematics can be used to enhance the understanding of history. However, they also acknowledge that not all disciplines can be classified as sciences, specifically referring to the humanities. Despite this, there is a tendency for these disciplines to label themselves as sciences.

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