Summary of ¿Qué son las FALACIAS y cómo identificarlas? Tipos de falacias y ejemplos

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A fallacy is an argument that seems logical but is actually flawed. There are many different types of fallacies, and they can be divided into two main categories: formal and informal. Formal fallacies are those that are based on structural errors, while informal fallacies are those that contain incorrect information in their premises or argue for a conclusion based on a popular but invalid idea. Some common examples of fallacies include the ad populum fallacy and the fallacy of appeal to authority.

  • 00:00:00 Falacies are reasoning that seem logical or valid, but are not. They have the appearance of obeying a valid reasoning process, but in fact the reasoning is flawed. This type of deception is intended to deceive or persuade an opponent. Falacias are based on the violation of a logical rule. A falacious argument can have true premises, but still be flawed because the procedure followed was erroneous. This makes an argument falacious, because it is itself invalid. In addition, falacias can be involuntary or conscious, and may be made with the intent to manipulate others. However, falacias can also be due to incorrect understanding that an argument is being used incorrectly--there are varieties of falacies listed below. formal falacies are arguments that are based on structural errors. These errors occur in the connection of premises, making it impossible to reach a valid conclusion. There are several formal falacias mentioned below. The opposite of the antecedent--error inverse--occurs when we take a conditional statement and assert its inverse--for example, if it happens that p then q, we would say that not-q happens. This is a fallacy because not always is it possible to prove the reasons for a premise.
  • 00:05:00 Falacias are fallacious arguments that rely on faulty or irrational premises. They can be formal or informal, and either contain incorrect information in their premises, or argue for a conclusion based on a popular idea even if the idea is invalid. Two common fallacies are the ad populum fallacy, which argues that because a lot of people believe something, it must be true, and the fallacy of appeal to authority, which relies on the idea that because someone is a authority on the subject, their argument is automatically valid. Falacias can also be called fallacies of reasoning or fallacies of induction.
  • 00:10:00 This video discusses the different types of fallacies, and offers examples of how to identify them. One example is the "argument from ignorance," in which a person makes an assertion based on incomplete or anecdotal evidence. Another is the "argument from composition," which is based on the assumption that if something is true in its composition, then it must be true in entirety. Finally, the "argument from existence" is a fallacy in which a proposition is assumed to be true simply because it exists.

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