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In this video, mathematician Roger Penrose discusses his theory that consciousness is related to the physical universe. He suggests that consciousness may be something that is not computable, but which can be approached through the use of discrete elements in a physical system. He also reflects on the theory of general relativity, which he believes can be modeled on a computer. He concludes by suggesting that consciousness may be close to being understood, but that more research is necessary.

**00:00:00**Roger Penrose discusses his favorite movie, 2001: A Space Odyssey, and its representation of artificial intelligence, science, and engineering. He praises the movie's detail and accuracy, and mentions the scene where HAL throws a bone up into the air and it becomes a monolith.**00:05:00**Roger Penrose discusses the theory that certain large integers are conscious, and argues that this intuition is reasonable. He also mentions the idea that if we increase the power of computation, consciousness will naturally emerge.**00:10:00**Roger Penrose explores the theory that much of what we call computation is done by the cerebellum, an unconscious organ in the brain. He argues that this explains why consciousness is not limited to the cerebrum, and why the cerebellum is better suited for performing complex computations than the cerebrum.**00:15:00**This lecture by Roger Penrose covers the various concepts of computability, the role of mathematics in computing and the relationship between mathematics and reality. Penrose talks about how the brain could be seen as a universal Turing machine and how the beauty of mathematics is its ability to describe the world accurately. He also discusses the concept of provability and how it is important for mathematics to be complete.**00:20:00**This lecture by mathematician Roger Penrose discusses how a formal system of proof can be used to verify the correctness of a statement, but how it is ultimately reliant on one's trust in the system. He goes on to say that if one can understand what the system is saying, then they can transcend the system. This understanding is not governed by rules and is beyond the ability of a machine.**00:25:00**In this video, mathematician Roger Penrose discusses how consciousness is related to the brain and the universe. He also speaks about how "consciousness is something else" which is an advantage to humans.**00:30:00**Roger Penrose reflects on the question of consciousness and how it may be related to the physical universe. He suggests that consciousness may be something that is not computable, but which can be approached through the use of discrete elements in a physical system. He also reflects on the theory of general relativity, which he believes can be modeled on a computer. He concludes by suggesting that consciousness may be close to being understood, but that more research is necessary.**00:35:00**Roger Penrose discusses the principle of equivalence in quantum mechanics, which states that the gravitational field can be eliminated locally. This principle is at odds with the principle of superposition, which states that a quantum system can be in multiple states simultaneously. This tension between the two principles is what causes the conflict between quantum mechanics and general relativity.**00:40:00**Roger Penrose discusses the possibility of consciousness needing some of the same characteristics as what is found in the mathematical universe, or the "infinite universe." He says that although consciousness may not be a physical process that can be described by computation, it is still possible. He discusses his book, "The Emperor's New Mind," and how it got Stuart Hameroff's attention. Hameroff then convinced Roger to explore the topic of microtubules, which he found to be a promising avenue in thinking about consciousness.**00:45:00**This YouTube video features physicist Roger Penrose discussing his theory that consciousness originates at the quantum level inside neurons. This theory is contrary to the popular belief that consciousness arises from the computation performed by synapses.**00:50:00**Roger Penrose discusses the need for a new theory beyond quantum mechanics in order to explain the collapse of a wavefunction. He refers to experiments being conducted by dirt Romney Stowe and others, as well as to the work of quantum gravity theorists.**00:55:00**Stuart Hameroff believes that general anesthetics directly affect microtubules, and this has led to controversial discussions about whether or not consciousness is computation. The main argument against this is that it is still unclear what "consciousness" actually is.

In this interview, Roger Penrose discusses his theory that consciousness is tied up with the mystery of quantum mechanics and how the world works. He argues that the depths of mathematics involved in these questions are apparent to children, but adults are often too busy trying to solve the "obvious" problems to see the beauty of the concepts.

**01:00:00**Roger Penrose discusses his 2010 book, "Cycles of Time," in which he suggests that another universe may have existed before the Big Bang. He describes the Big Bang as a discovery that changed the way we think about the universe, and notes that the steady-state model, which was based on the idea that the universe was always in a state of primordial equilibrium, was disproved.**01:05:00**Roger Penrose is a mathematician and philosopher known for his work in the mathematical theory of relativity and the philosophy of mathematics. He is also known for his work on the theory of consciousness and the universe. In this interview, he discusses the theory of inflation, which he views as a problem with the theory.**01:10:00**Roger Penrose discusses the physics of consciousness and the infinite universe. He shares the example of Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry and how they represent different levels of infinity. He states that there is an actual physical manifestation of infinity in our universe, and that mathematicians are constantly thinking about infinity.**01:15:00**Roger Penrose speaks about the physics of consciousness and the infinite universe. He discusses how mathematical tricks can be turned into reality, and how mass and energy are equivalent. He goes on to say that the remote future contains signals from the past that we can see. He also talks about the concept of black holes and how they can release gravitational waves.**01:20:00**Roger Penrose discusses the physics of consciousness and the infinite universe in this Lex Fridman podcast. He argues that consciousness is tied up with the mystery of quantum mechanics and how the world works.**01:25:00**Roger Penrose discusses the physics of consciousness and the infinite universe, highlighting the mystery of quantum of complex numbers and the complexities involved in understanding the mind. He says that although the depths of mathematics involved in these questions are apparent to children, adults are often too busy trying to solve the "obvious" problems to see the beauty of the concepts.

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