Summary of Intro to Neuroscience

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00:00:00 - 00:45:00

This video provides an introduction to neuroscience, discussing the different types of neurons, their role in neural circuits, and how electrical signals travel between them. It also introduces the concept of synaptic transmission and discusses the different types of synaptic transmission. Finally, it explains how neural circuits are formed and how they communicate.

  • 00:00:00 The brain is a complex organ containing more than 100 billion neurons and receiving thousands of connections from other neurons. The major neurological disorders we will discuss throughout the course are Alzheimer's Disease, Epilepsy, Huntington's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and Myasthenia Gravis.
  • 00:05:00 This 1-paragraph summary provides an introduction to neuroscience, describing the different types of neurons and their roles in neural circuits.
  • 00:10:00 This video explains how electrical signals travel between neurons, and how the resting potential of a neuron determines the level of stimulation needed to cause activity.
  • 00:15:00 The nervous system is made up of cells that can depolarize (become less negative on the electrochemical scale) in response to an incoming stimulus. This depolarization is called an excitatory postsynaptic potential. In a nutshell, excitatory postsynaptic potentials are a signaling mechanism between neurons that allows them to communicate their excitement or intensity of a stimulus.
  • 00:20:00 The video introduces the concept of synaptic transmission, which is the process by which one neuron can send a signal to another neuron. Two types of synaptic transmission are discussed- excitatory and inhibitory. Excitatory transmission is when an EPSP is produced by an excitatory neuron by a single action potential, and two together produce a sum aiding EPSP leading to an action potential. Inhibitory transmission is when an IPSP is produced by an inhibitory neuron, which decreases the probability of the postsynaptic neuron from firing. There is also a process of integration, which is when an IPSP is produced by a red neuron followed by a second action potential in the excitatory neuron producing the IPSP.
  • 00:25:00 The monosynaptic reflex test assesses the integrity of the nervous system by testing the reflexes of a single synapse. The stretch reflex tests the reflexes of the spinal cord, and the interneuron reflex test tests the reflexes between two neurons. These tests can be used to assess the health of the nervous system.
  • 00:30:00 This video explains how lateral inhibition in the spinal cord allows us to distinguish between different intensities of light, and how this is important for tasks such as walking in the dark.
  • 00:35:00 This video introduces the concept of neuroscience and its various fields, including lateral inhibition and the visual illusion known as Mach bands. Lateral inhibition explains how edge enhancement occurs, and the video also discusses feedback inhibition, which is important for rhythmic behavior.
  • 00:40:00 The intro to neuroscience video explains how a feedback inhibition circuit in a neuron can generate oscillations. This circuit is responsible for the 24-hour rhythms seen in the body, such as the circadian rhythm. The video also describes how a simpler neural circuit can produce quadrupedal and locomotion.
  • 00:45:00 This video introduces the concept of neural circuits, and discusses how they are formed and how they communicate. Dr. Bean explains how a single neuron can be specifically wired to communicate with its appropriate partner, and how this contributes to complex behaviors.

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