In this video, Paola Arlotta discusses the process of brain development, with a focus on stem cells and organoids. She shares her own experiences as a parent and discusses the importance of communication between scientists and the public.
00:00:00 The conversation with Paulo Lara discusses the development of the human brain and how it is difficult but not impossible to make a brain like ours. Lara also notes that while much is known about the brain, much still remains unexplained.
00:05:00 The video discusses the development of the human brain, discussing the different stages it goes through and the specific cells that are involved. It is fascinating to think about the complexity of the brain development process, and it is interesting to note that the order in which the cells are created can impact the final product.
00:10:00 The video discusses how developmental neurobiology is a complex mess, but that by using processes of development, it is possible to see how things can go wrong. The brain is not a dictatorship, and there are many possibilities for how it can be built.
00:15:00 In the video, Paola Arlotta talks about the code of brain development, and how it is controlled by a continuous process of building new cell types from stem cells. She also explains how myelin, which speeds up the transmission of electric signals, is an important part of this process. Arlotta suggests that the future of brain development may involve less myelin, which would allow for more flexibility and unpredictable behavior. This is a mind-blowing concept, and one that scientists are still trying to understand.
00:20:00 Organoids are a system of cellular systems that can be used to study the development of the brain. They are also a valuable tool for studying diseases that affect brain development, such as neurodevelopmental diseases.
00:25:00 This video discusses the differences between brain development in vivo and in organoids, and how organoids can be used to study the Cerebral Cortex in greater detail.
00:30:00 In this video, Paola Arlotta discusses the role of astrocytes in brain development. She explains that these cells are not neuron cells, but they play important roles in supporting neuron communication and synaptogenesis. Astrocytes are also important for making synapses and for controlling brain development. Arlotta explains that by studying an organized cerebral cortex, scientists can learn about the diversity of cell types involved in brain development, the mechanisms by which these cells are made, and the potential effects of developmental disorders on brain function.
00:35:00 The video discusses the progress scientists have made in understanding the developmental process of the brain, and how technologies such as stem cells and high-resolution microscopy are helping to make progress much faster than in the past. While there is still much to learn, it is clear that we are making progress in understanding the biology of the brain and its development.
00:40:00 Paola Arlotta discusses how her team's organoids model of brain development is useful for understanding disease, as well as for developing artificial intelligence. She notes that there are still ethical questions to be answered, and that scientists need to be constantly discussing how to best proceed with this work.
00:45:00 Paola Arlotta discusses the process of brain development, with a focus on stem cells and organoids. She shares her own experiences as a parent and discusses the importance of communication between scientists and the public.
00:50:00 Paola Arlotta discusses how the brain develops from a stem cell to an organoid, and how studying the brain has changed the way she sees herself and looks in the mirror. She also discusses how some people see artificial intelligence as the next evolutionary step, and how she thinks that might happen.
00:55:00 The video discusses how the cortex, which is the brain's center for processing information, is shaped by evolution and by the technologies that we use. It also points out that, while the cortex is adaptable, there is no better way to end the interview than with Paula thanking her for talking.