Summary of Sesión 14: Meritocracia y empleo público

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00:00:00 - 01:00:00

The video discusses the concept of meritocracy and how it applies to public employment in contemporary democracies. Three professors from different faculties in the university discuss the concepts of meritocracy and how it applies to the Colombian workplace. Professors Andrés Abel, Armando Torres, and Nidia Branilia then give a short presentation on how meritocracy works in Colombia and some of the most common practices and barriers to its implementation. Finally, the professor of citizenship and integrity, Eduardo Rodríguez, takes the stage to discuss the importance of integrity in the fight against corruption.

  • 00:00:00 The panel discusses the concept of meritocracy and the public sector job market. They discuss the professor's experience and expertise in the field, and the panelist's experience in academia. Finally, the moderator introduces the guests, and they begin their talk.
  • 00:05:00 The video discusses the importance of meritocracy in the workplace, and specifically how it applies to the process of hiring public employees. Three professors from different faculties in the university discuss the concepts of meritocracy and how it applies to the Colombian workplace. Professors Andrés Abel, Armando Torres, and Nidia Branilia then give a short presentation on how meritocracy works in Colombia and some of the most common practices and barriers to its implementation. Finally, the professor of citizenship and integrity, Eduardo Rodríguez, takes the stage to discuss the importance of integrity in the fight against corruption.
  • 00:10:00 This video discusses the concept of meritocracy and how it applies to public employment in contemporary democracies. Fernando Torres, a professor at the Universidad de La Plata, discusses Argentina's experience with meritocracy up until the 1991 Constitution. He discusses the experience of the judiciary, and finally, the professor discusses the limitations of meritocracy from a technical perspective as well as an evaluation and assessment standpoint. Torres then presents some very brief conceptual elements on meritocracy, followed by some considerations on how it applies to public employment in contemporary democracies. He finishes with a discussion of two paradoxes meritocracy can create-one concerning constitutional law and the other concerning philosophy.
  • 00:15:00 The video discusses the concept of meritocracy, and its positive and negative aspects. It points to the fact that meritocracy is related to the achievement of certain types of practices in the access to public goods, such as the recognition of certain rights. However, meritocracy also has a negative dimension, as reproaches can be made of certain aspects of the discussion, such as the distinctions made between people. Three images are presented: on the one hand, people who see meritocracy as a positive concept, on the other hand, caricatures of those who do not apply meritocracy in the access to public jobs, and lastly, caricatures of those who criticize meritocracy for its negative effects on the access to public jobs for those who are not from privileged backgrounds. Two opposite positions are presented: one side argues that meritocracy is a tool to face practices that are deeply rooted in our political culture, which are related to patronageism and corruption. On the other hand, meritocracy is presented as a tool that emerged in the 60s, in the United Kingdom, specifically, as a reaction to a novel by a man with the pseudonym of Joan. The video discusses the issue of gender, pointing out that women face more difficulties than men in
  • 00:20:00 This is the first paradoxical conceptual issue that will be mentioned in this session. It will mark or marked a point at which the initial debate about the concept of aristocracy started. The term "méritocracia" can be translated as "meritocracy," but has a pejorative meaning in the 1970s and 1980s. However, since the 1990s, it has begun to be associated with a more positive meaning. One of the major debates in political and legal philosophy is the debate about justice, and around which concept the concept of justice should be defined. One of the main arguments in this debate is which criterion should be used to determine whether a situation or structure is just. One of the criteria that has been used is the concept of merit. The debate about the theory of justice in the field of philosophy and jurisprudence seems to be a defensible one. I mean, of course, someone can claim, "Of course, it's obvious, everyone gets into a right by merit, because they worked hard for it, and because they are really smart or talented for a certain activity
  • 00:25:00 The article discusses the Colombian Constitution's article 13, which states that all people have the same right to be treated equally under the law and cannot be discriminated against. It also has a second paragraph that warns of special treatment for people who are disadvantaged in terms of exclusion. This shows how the meritocracy responds to two political values: freedom and equality. It is very difficult, for example, to guarantee both values in the same way. One of the constitutional challenges that we face today, and which dates back to the founding of the country, is this paradoxical situation: on the one hand, the principle of meritocracy is enshrined in the Constitution as a way to ensure the achievement of state goals and the protection of the general interest, as stated in the first paragraph. On the other hand, individuals are granted rights based on their individual merits, which prevails over the general interest when it comes to promotion and retention in public office. We can highlight two situations in which democracy and meritocracy play a role in the public sector: here we will focus on employment in the public sector. First, meritocracy is a system of hiring that tries to avoid practices based on personal connections and favor those based on merit. These practices are still very entrenched today,
  • 00:30:00 The video discusses the concept of "meritocracy" and how it works in the public sector, since Colombia became an independent country. The presenter points out that since meritocracy is based on the principle of equality, it can also benefit democracy as a whole. Three goals of meritocracy are to achieve equality, to prevent politicization of the hiring process, and to ensure the best possible performance by public officials. The professor also mentions the need for political stability as a byproduct of meritocracy. Hernando Torres, our dean of the Faculty of Law and Political Science, takes the stage to talk about the topic. He notes that the struggle between citizens and the state over meritocracy has been a constant throughout Colombian history. He also mentions the many wars that have been fought over the concept.
  • 00:35:00 The video discusses the meritocracy concept and how it relates to the issue of public employment. It explains that, originally, the fight for bureaucratic control of the state was a perpetual battle between bureaucrats and politicians, but in the 1930s, a law was passed that regulated access to public service. This law, known as the 1938 Ley 165, was the first to address the issue of career advancement in an administratively rational way. However, it has had very little effect in practice due to the lack of political will to enforce it. In 1952, President John F. Kennedy issued a mission statement that called for the establishment of a rational bureaucratic structure. This resulted in the signing of the Pacto Nacional, which established a set of rules for political leadership to follow when appointing public employees. Since then, public employment has been largely a result of political agreements rather than rational planning.
  • 00:40:00 The video discusses the Meritocracy and Public Sector Employment Pact, which would involve turning over the exercise of power to the public so that they may turn around and receive those who are being appointed. Obviously, this would take place at the reception of those being appointed, obviously not based on their career backgrounds. This has been a topic of discussion for 57 years, as was mentioned in a previous year's plebiscite. Except for a few Norms that spoke about this before, the idea of creating a career path for government service has been spoken about for a long time. In 1959, a law was passed that created the National Civil Service Commission to oversee civil service recruitment. Today, this commission still exists, and is responsible for setting the central lines for civil service entry and the current reforms. I mention this because we still have a country with privileges saying that all citizens are equal before the law, and I'm talking about the law as a whole, not just in terms of its material effects. This is because there are different types of careers, which was alluded to when I talked about lines for entering the public sector through civil service competitions. This commission is also responsible for regulating the development and management of public services, which brings up many conflicts and tensions. But
  • 00:45:00 The video discusses the concept of meritocracy and public employment. It describes how the constitution establishes a general line of what should be involved in public employment, and how official workers fall into one of three categories: general employees in the national government, provincial and municipal administrations. There are also official workers in the private sector who are also part of the public sector. However, they have different contracting procedures because they hold positions with different levels of responsibility. Finally, the video discusses meritocracy in the context of the Colombia's ratifying of the International Labour Organization's conventions, which break the old patronage-based system in favor of a merit-based one.
  • 00:50:00 In this video session, the speaker discusses meritocracy and public employment. He states that meritocracy is the idea that based on merit, individuals should be given opportunities to rise through the ranks. The first focus of meritocracy is in the hiring of regular employees, because there are other ways to connect to the state, such as through positions with free appointment and removal, which are not achieved through competition. Discretionary discretion means that under certain criteria, an individual can be promoted, because the government's council of state is sufficiently aware of the difference between that and arbitrary discretion, which sometimes has hard limits. Another way an individual can enter the public sector is through the exercise of free appointment and removal, which are available to citizens under certain conditions that vary depending on the institution. The difference between these two is that contract-based employment has social security and wage regulations built into it, while contact-based employment does not, because it is obtained through a civil contract. From a practical standpoint, it is important to understand how public employees are paid and how they are promoted, because being a public servant does not mean being a worker without benefits.
  • 00:55:00 In this video, sociologist Andrés Cepeda discusses meritocracy, the hiring process, and the use of regulated career paths in the public sector. He argues that the principle of meritocracy is often misused, with some people being appointed based on their personal connections rather than their merit. Cepeda also points out that there are a variety of ways to enter the public sector, each with its own set of challenges and rewards. Finally, he provides an example of how meritocracy is implemented in the judicial system.

01:00:00 - 01:55:00

This video discusses the concept of meritocracy and how it can be applied to the public sector. It discusses the importance of having clear and enforceable rules in competitions and reviews, and the need for a system of promotion that takes into account an individual's skills and interests.

  • 01:00:00 In this video, students and academics discuss the exercise of the right to justice, but not the practice of law. They then discuss the role of judiciary's educational institutions in formulating justice. Next, they discuss judicial evaluation throughout the entire process of appointment. This is important, as judicial selection and performance are not only based on the qualifications of a candidate, but also on their continued development. This is done through a normal probationary period, which is followed by a second, longer period of professional training. Finally, the opportunity to become a judge is open to those who have completed a specific judicial training course. This presentation addresses the issue of judicial career paths and the need for more horizontal communication between the state and workers. It also points out the need for employers and employees to be aware of their mutual responsibilities in the workplace.
  • 01:05:00 In this video, the presenter discusses how meritocracy and public employment can work together. He starts by saying that, although meritocracy is a good system, it has some limitations. He then goes on to discuss the two main entities in which meritocracy affects public employment: the departmental administrative body that selects public managers and evaluates their performance, and the National Service Civil Commission, which is in charge of appointing civil servants and vetting their performance. Finally, he talks about the Commission's independence and its ability to make sound decisions.
  • 01:10:00 In this session, Professor Rodríguez and Professor Torres talk about the challenges of implementing meritocracy in the Colombian public sector. They discuss how current processes for hiring and promotion are flawed, and point out that more steps are needed to truly achieve meritocracy in government. One suggestion is to create a system where employees move between different levels of government, reducing the cost of switching jobs.
  • 01:15:00 In this session, Meritocracy and public employment is defined, followed by a discussion of how to overcome some of the barriers to disseminating information. The discussion then turns to access to information in certain areas of the country, where it is not equal for all. I believe that this has been improving, but there are still some barriers to improving. For example, connectivity in some areas of the country or in some regions of the country can be a barrier and an obstacle to accessing information and carrying out the recruitment process effectively. After the admission and evaluation phases, there is a stage of training for those who are not admitted or who do not meet the requirements for the position. This is usually done through online courses. After this stage, the trainee has the opportunity to appeal or ask for clarification of their situation. Finally, the trainee's eligibility for the position is determined, taking into account their academic and work experience, as well as the specific functions and hierarchy of the position. After this, I will discuss the training protocol for evaluating candidates for certain positions. This will be followed by a discussion of safety measures taken during the recruitment process. Next, I will discuss the process of determining who is qualified for a position and who is not, based
  • 01:20:00 This video discusses the question of whether or not commercial tests should be used in government jobs, as well as the process of designing such tests. It highlights the importance of having pre-existing analysis of test results in order to ensure accuracy.
  • 01:25:00 The video discusses the importance of using in-depth, innovative testing methods in order to improve the quality of public employment exams. The presenter gives the example of a pilot project testing 100 new questions instead of the usual 95 questions that are typically used in public employment exams. This project was created in order to avoid lawsuits when candidates who receive low scores in these exams claim that the tests were unfair. The presenter also mentions that this testing method is not commonly used and may not be used in the future once the project is implemented more widely. Although this testing method is innovative, it has had some negative consequences in terms of the quality of public employment exams. For example, the presenter says that because each entity conducts its own testing process, different positions within the same organization can have very similar testing requirements. This makes it difficult to ensure that all positions within an organization receive the same testing quality. Additionally, the use of in-depth, innovative testing methods has led to the development of similar, but not entirely original, test questions. As a result, the quality of public employment exams has gradually declined over time.
  • 01:30:00 The video discusses the idea of meritocracy, or using job criteria that are more transversal and inclusive to different organizations and sectors. There are models of how to manage banks using question banks, which can be helpful in assessing different situations. Another barrier to evaluations is the tendency to consider group rights before individual rights, and this is a consideration for any scenario, from very early on in the process to the very late stage.
  • 01:35:00 This video discusses the idea of meritocracy and how it can be applied to the public sector. It discusses how women, for example, are not the only group that agree with me, but meritocracy is not the solution to inequality. It is only a temporary measure that should not replace the reflection on how to overcome real reason due to inequality. We have been working lately on a more universal design approach, which may seem a little naive but is actually looking at evolutionary equitable trends. From the perspective of affirmative actions, not just positive actions, we need to eliminate barriers. When we talk about eliminating barriers, we are not just talking about how to make the evaluation process or access to information or career progression for public sector employees similar for someone who has a physical disability for someone who does not have it. We are not just talking about that. We are talking about differences, and that we have to think about the evaluation process mechanisms that respect those differences, without sacrificing their quality, in contrast to guaranteeing access to information and evaluation procedures for information and communication disabilities. At the same time, good but respecting those differences, and there are international proposals that we have been very timid in our country with the use of technology. There are a lot of things that can be done
  • 01:40:00 This video discusses the meritocracy issue and how it affects employment in the public sector. Other studies have looked at, for example, how the public perceives processes of an editocrático. We found at least one interesting difference: people tend to value highly the fact that there are people who enter the job through a competition, especially from the individual point of view. However, from the perspective of their values as individuals, the majority of people have a negative view of people who enter the job through a competition, as well as of their abilities, work effort, and ability to fit in. We did this study mainly with people from municipalities. We asked them about their perceptions of the performance of career employees, as well as their interactions with career employees. We also found that some people have a perception that when they get a job and a career, their performance decreases. We also found a perception that people in a career position have a sense of superiority and that they are not as committed as others. Finally, we discuss some of the barriers that people in a career position might face and how they might be overcome. We all need to rethink our processes from the point of view of flexibility, without compromising rigor. We could use technology to overcome
  • 01:45:00 The video discusses how, in a democracy, certain positions in the government should be open to competition and be subject to the rule of the people. It also discusses how, in a meritocratic system, these positions should be filled based on merit. A question was asked about whether there are any public competitions for these positions, as they seem to be becoming more and more common. Rodrigo Vallejo, a doctor, said that there is a need for legislation to prevent this from happening, as these competitions often end in never-ending processes. Niidia, one of the presenters, then asked a question about the need for a clear system in order to be able to move up in a government job. The professor said that this is something that should be legislated for, and that there are a number of ways to do it. A question was then asked about whether there is a difference between direct and high-level positions in the government. The professor said that there is a clear distinction, and that the high-level positions are those that would be subject to the rule of elections. He added that, in many countries, the judiciary's initial position is not necessarily tied to a process of career advancement. A question was then asked about
  • 01:50:00 The video discusses the concepts of meritocracy and employment in the public sector. It discusses the importance of having clear, enforceable rules in competitions and reviews, and discusses the challenges of implementing such a system when there are frequent changes in political leadership. It also discusses the need for a system of promotion that takes into account an individual's skills and interests.
  • 01:55:00 This video discusses the concept of meritocracy and the importance of having an open and transparent government. The speaker suggests that the concept of meritocracy is important because it allows for individuals to be judged based on their abilities, rather than their social backgrounds. The speaker also discusses the concept of brechas de género and the challenges that women face in the workplace. Finally, the speaker announces that a forum on anticorruption will be held on November 5th in the University's auditorium, and invites everyone to attend.

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