Summary of Las CULTURAS PRECOLOMBINAS de América: Aztecas, Mayas e Incas👨‍🏫

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This video discusses the Pre-Columbian cultures of America, including the Maya, Aztec, and Inca. These cultures were advanced, with complex art, writing systems, and architecture. They also had rigid social structures, with the emperor at the top and a hierarchy of nobility below him.

  • 00:00:00 The Pre-Columbian cultures are the civilizations or people that inhabited what is now called the "new world" before the arrival of Christopher Columbus over 10,000 years ago. Indigenous cultures evolved and interacted with each other, largely without any contact with the rest of the world, despite the occasional Viking and Polynesian exchanges, for hundreds of years. The Pre-Columbian cultures include the Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. The Maya civilization is perhaps the most developed and complex of the three, and originated in Mesoamerica but was in decline when the Spanish arrived. The Classic Maya period (roughly 2000 BC-900 AD) was marked by the emergence of major cities and the development of complex religious beliefs, reflected in the Popol Vuh and practice of human sacrifices. The Post-Classic period (900-1697 AD) was characterized by repeated military conflicts with other Maya cities and against other cultures in central and southern America. The cause of most wars was the control of trade routes and commercial activity, as well as attempts to expand and dominate. Maya society was highly stratified, with a ruling class of aristocrats who participated in military campaigns. All men were expected to participate in warfare, regardless of social class. The Maya
  • 00:05:00 The Aztec, Maya, and Inca cultures are discussed in this video, which covers their art, armies, and social structures. The Maya were considered the most advanced in terms of art, with their sculpture in wood and stone, and murals on the walls of their temples. The Aztec empire reached its peak in the 14th and 15th centuries, but was eventually conquered by the Spanish. The Aztecs spoke Nahuatl, which helped facilitate their alliances with two Nahua cities in Mexico - Coyoacán and Tlatelolco - and their rapid expansion into political and military power. Their diet consisted of both human and animal sacrifices, which played a role in their religion and supplemented their diet. The Aztec government was a theocracy led by a high priest known as the wey tlatoani. He was elected by a council of representatives from twenty clans, and his position as a god-man represented the gods on earth. The Aztec empire reached its greatest extent throughout much of present-day Mexico, including parts of Guatemala and Oaxaca. Its political and religious organization allowed for rapid military expansion, as well as alliances with other cities.
  • 00:10:00 The Aztec, Maya, and Inca civilizations are each discussed in this video. The Aztecs were a dominant culture in Mesoamerica, and their economy was based on taxation and trade. The Maya were a particularly advanced culture, with a writing system and impressive architecture. The Incas were a dominant culture in South America, and their empire was later surpassed by the Spanish. Their language, the Quechua, is the second most spoken indigenous language in America.
  • 00:15:00 The Pre-Columbian cultures of America include the Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas. They developed irrigation systems and terraces to be able to grow crops on the high slopes of the Andes. Their main crops were maize, potatoes, coca, tomatoes, ají, manioc, and palm trees. It is estimated that they cultivated over 80 plant species and 200 varieties of potatoes. They also domesticated and raised several types of llamas and alpacas. The Inca economy consisted of three types of work: individual, communal, and state work. The community provided taxes that were used by the state depositories. The empire was divided into four regions, each with a different kind of viceroy. The art of the Pre-Columbian cultures is best known for its ceramics and architecture. They produced gold, silver, and copper works. Their literature is expressed in yaravíes, haiku-like poems, short stories, and fables. The most famous art from the empire is its megalithic architecture. The social structure of the Inca empire was rigid and hierarchical, with the emperor at the top and his family as the last link. The nobility was made up of members of

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