Summary of Carlos III, luces y sombras del Reformismo ilustrado (Memoria de España 17/26)

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In the YouTube video "Carlos III, luces y sombras del Reformismo ilustrado (Memoria de España 17/26)," the narrator discusses the life and work of Spanish Bourbon king Carlos III. Carlos III is most known for his construction projects, which aimed to improve the quality of life in Madrid and make it comparable to other European cities. Among his many achievements, Carlos III is also credited with creating new parks and squares, as well as many monuments and public water works. He died at the age of 73 years old, leaving behind a legacy of beautiful and lasting architecture.

  • 00:00:00 In 1736, Carlos III of Spain became gravely ill with a fever that caused him to have delirious and convulsive episodes. His faithful servant does everything in his power to help him, and the doctors at palace do their best to relieve the king's anxious situation. Charles had been trying to hide his illness for days with the help of a solicitous pin, and he was also given warm grease massage with a cow's hide. Now the physicians are giving him different drugs based on vinegar and honey. However, the old king holds on to his fight against deep loneliness that had been developing for some time and pursued him until the end of his life. Only a few weeks earlier, he had lost his young son, Gabriel, who had died after succumbing to three deaths in a row: his mother's, his wife's, and his own son's. His mother and wife had both been very influential in his long and eventful life, and Charles felt the loss of both very deeply. He also grieved for the loss of his mother, Isabel of Flanders, and his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony, who had been married for 22 years. On 3 June 1735, at the age of 19, Charles
  • 00:05:00 In 1726, the young Carlos III of Spain had only just turned thirteen years old and was getting married. This event, which wasn't hindered by the royal couple's state of marriage, yielded a deep and lasting love between them. Maria Amalia, a woman of medium education with strong religious devotion and a quick intellect, gave Carlos 13 children in just 18 years. She devoted herself wholeheartedly to raising her numerous children and had a significant impact on the king's decisions as a member of the government council. The premature death of Maria Amalia just a few months after her arrival in Madrid to witness Carlos' coronation as king of Spain caused him to renounce for life a new marriage to an Italian woman. In Italy, Maria Amalia was with his collaborator and adviser, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, when Carlos learned of his brother Fernando's death. After 25 years of reign, the winds of history blew in a new direction and Carlos III became Carlos IV of Spain. He embarked on a program of reforms that would be fully expressed in the cultural sphere, where the best achievements of his Carolinian reign in Italy can be found. One of the most impressive constructions during Carlos' reign was the Royal Palace of Caserta
  • 00:10:00 In this video, Carlos III is discussed, focusing on his reign and the various reforms he enacted. His mother, Isabel of Farnesio, was able to enjoy the reality of a long-sought dream of seeing her son, the Spanish king, on the throne. In October of 1759, Carlos III arrived in Barcelona, inheriting a throne already headed by his father, Felipe V. Carlos maintained Felipe V's centralized and uniform policy, and he was already 44 years old when he took the throne. Although he brought international prestige to the monarchy, Carlos's main goal was to improve Spain's standing in comparison to other European countries. However, his mother's dream would not be fulfilled until he died in 1788.
  • 00:15:00 In 1726, the tensions in Madrid between the king's supporters and opponents reached a boiling point and turned into a full-blown revolution. The main impetus for the uprising was the high prices of food, as well as the increasing number of foreigners in government and the constant intrigues of less-permeable groups. The following year, the king decreed the expulsion of both Spanish and colonial Jesuits, which would benefit Money greatly as the title of Count of Floridablanca. The consequences for culture and education were negative, especially in Latin America, where the Jesuits had been responsible for a brilliant labor. The king's support for reformism will always be linked to three key figures: Carlos III's minister, Carlos de Campomanes, who was in charge of the economy; Pedro Pablo, 10th Count of Aranda, who fought for the old values of nobility; and José Moñino, the ambassador to the Vatican, who secured the papal abolition of the Jesuits. Each of these men represented a different aspect of the king's project of reform, and all were key in getting it done.
  • 00:20:00 In the 17th and 18th centuries, Spain was ruled by a number of reform-minded monarchs, including Charles III. One of these reformers, Pedro Rodríguez de Campomanes, became the ideologist behind the reforms of Charles III. José Moñino Conde de Floridablanca was another reform-minded figure, and he played a key role in advising the king on government affairs. Despite their efforts, however, the reformers were never able to carry their reforms to the end. Charles' strong physical health prevented him from succumbing to the disease that was slowly weakening him, but his inflexible character prevented him from making any real progress on the numerous political issues he was facing. In the midst of the Anglo-French War (the War of the Seven Years), Charles decided to ally himself with the French, signing the Third Pact of Family Unity. This decision proved costly to Spain, as England with its powerful military attacked the Spanish colonies and eventually took control of the port of Havana and the Philippines. The reformers' efforts were in vain; Charles' deteriorating health led to his death in 1788 at the age of 64. His memory is remembered for the dramatic climax of the Spanish Empire's
  • 00:25:00 Spain's Third Conflict with the British stemmed from the country's support of the American Revolution, which had begun three years earlier. After three years of war, the United States is declared a new nation, and Spain recovers Minorca, but Gibraltar remains under British control. The siege of Gibraltar again ends in failure. Economic investments were required to strengthen Spain's military presence in some of the most important strategic areas, such as Cartagena de Indias or Havana. Military spending reached two-thirds of the national budget. Regulations for the army were drafted, the national anthem was adopted, and the lottery was instituted on Christmas Day, 1766, under the service of Schumacher. However, it is also necessary to grow and widen the market to meet expenses, and this is the goal of the reform plans. Demographically, during the second half of the 18th century, Spain's population grew from 9 million to 10 million people. This growth was possible thanks to improvements in public health and hygiene, as well as the enforcement of population-friendly immigration policies promoted by Pablo de Olavide in the Sierra Morena. Production of food crops was emphasized, with agriculture, livestock, and textiles receiving preferential treatment. To promote trade, a regulation was
  • 00:30:00 In this video, King Carlos III is discussed in depth, from his economic policies which favored the wealthy classes to his efforts to prepare the elite for future leadership in terms of social policy. Ultimately, the government of Carlos III is primarily interested in creating a class of intermediaries able to position themselves at the head of the next generation of wealth. Despite these efforts, many people in the margins of society and with regards to land ownership and wealth inequality still live in dire circumstances. A hundred thousand poor people make up the shadow of the Bourbon dynasty's social contradictions. Despite the monarch's declining health, any small improvement is enough to motivate him to attempt to resume some of his regular activities that age and illness are gradually limiting. Carlos had always been a man of fixed habits, living punctuality as a fixation and his daily activities having been meticulously ordered and routine to the point where his colleagues were able to guess at his whereabouts by the hour and day of the year, even from a distance. Hunting was one of his main passions, forming part of his daily routine despite its excessive strain on his health. This hobby for some was seen as an unbridled passion, indicative of a monarch who was out of touch with the more frivolous aspects of high society of his time.
  • 00:35:00 This video features a brief history of Spanish art, from the Baroque to the Enlightenment. Highlights include the popular celebration of traditional holidays, such as Easter and Christmas, as well as the gradual acceptance of new ideas among the artistic elite. Despite their efforts, some traditional celebrations, such as processions and carnivals, continued to have a strong hold on the public's heart. Meanwhile, some changes began to filter into the family structure and, although largely hierarchical and patriarchal, began to be more open and considerate of wives and children. At the same time, marital consent was gradually becoming more common among those in positions of authority, such as businessmen and journalists. However, scientific research that aimed to achieve practical results was often met with resistance from those who saw it as a threat to traditional values. While painting enjoyed the patronage of the king during the reigns of Charles III and Charles IV, the greatest achievements in Spanish art were achieved in the economic societies of friends of the country and in the world of journalistic realism, which was an genuine ally of the new artistic ideas. At the same time, Spanish science made significant progress in fields such as botany, zoology, and geography. However, it was in the field of navigation that technological advances had the most direct
  • 00:40:00 The video discusses the life and work of Carlos III, the Bourbon king of Spain who is considered one of the most accomplished monarchs in European history. Carlos III is most known for his construction projects, which aimed to improve the quality of life in Madrid and make it comparable to other European cities. Among his many achievements, Carlos III is also credited with creating new parks and squares, as well as many monuments and public water works. He died at the age of 73 years old, leaving behind a legacy of beautiful and lasting architecture.
  • 00:45:00 In this YouTube video, the narrator discusses the importance of maintaining equilibrium between the new and the old, between innovation and tradition. He speaks about the death of King Carlos III and the lack of ambition of a century. The music accompanying the video reflects this sentiment.

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