Summary of Better-Engineered Font Formats

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00:00:00 - 01:00:00

In the video, the author discusses ways to improve font formats by expanding what we currently have and switching formats between specifications and design based on schemas. He also discusses a long-term plan to add general computation to font design.

  • 00:00:00 The speaker discusses ways to improve font formats, focusing on expanding what we currently have and switching formats between specifications and design based on schemas. He also discusses a long-term plan to add general computation to font design.
  • 00:05:00 In this video, the author discusses the current font format and how it has limitations. He then goes on to explain how the font format can be improved by upgrading to a 2.0 format.
  • 00:10:00 The author discusses the various font limitations and proposes ways to address them. Among the proposed solutions are better-engineered font formats that allow for components with variation and better transformation. The author also discusses better outlines.
  • 00:15:00 The author of the video discusses the importance of font binary sizes in order to improve the font rendering and performance. The author proposes a new font format that allows for more than 16-bit numbers, but in a way that is more optimized and compatible with existing 16-bit mechanisms. The author also discusses the importance of backwards compatibility and notes that while updating the font format is necessary, it is also important to maintain the same style and design principles.
  • 00:20:00 The author discusses how font formats have limitations that can be addressed by freeing the file format. He suggests that 24-bit gids be added to the font format, which would allow for up to 16 million glyphs.
  • 00:25:00 The author proposes that font formats be expanded to beyond the 64,000 glyph limit, by allowing for "virtual glyph index" which would be a glyph index beyond the number of glyphs in the funds table. This would allow for greater flexibility in terms of the types of glyphs that can be used in a font.
  • 00:30:00 The video discusses font specifications, and how removing a single requirement allows for arbitrary number of glyphs to be specified without any change to the format. It also discusses how enlightened components or free radicals are created, and how type setting is handled in East Asian scripts.
  • 00:35:00 Better-engineered font formats remove requirements for glyphs in a font to have an advance specified, freeing the font format for use with new rasterizers that don't require glyph alignment.
  • 00:40:00 The speaker discusses the benefits of better-engineered font formats, such as specifying unicode variation sequences and removing requirements for shapes and advances. They also discuss the use of a 16-bit gid that needs to be updated, or the lack of support for high-glyphs in current font formats. The speaker suggests that true type be updated to use the same mechanism for font encoding as cff funds.
  • 00:45:00 In this video, Ken Lunde explains how font formats, such as 13 cmap and 13 gdfg, work and how they allow for more accurate and legible type sets. Peter Constable notes that all fonts have a certain number of glyphs that are not used, or are only used in specific situations, and Lawrence Penny asks if Lunde's proposed fixed-width encoding scheme for glyphs would be compatible with existing GID encodings. Lunde explains that while GID encoding is necessary for fonts to be random access, it is also inconvenient because it requires an array of fixed-size glyph IDs.
  • 00:50:00 The author discusses the benefits and drawbacks of better-engineered font formats, which include the isolated form and the g-pass table. The table design uses a serialization format that allows for sharing between tables. The 16-bit file offset limit is augmented with a file-wide multiplier, allowing for larger fonts. The author states that while backward compatibility is not the goal, it may still be possible with careful design.
  • 00:55:00 The video discusses the different font formats available, including 24-bit and 32-bit assets. When it comes to mapping the matches, the 24-bit asset offers savings when it comes to using 32-bit only. However, there must be reasons to justify doing 32-bit only, and one reason is that mapping the matches can be faster with 24-bit assets. The task of defining these formats is done by updating the coverage table. This table lists the gids that the subtable applies to, as well as the coverage index. This index is used to lookup the payload. Most of the subtables can work without any update, but there are some that need to be updated to take advantage of the new format.

01:00:00 - 02:00:00

This video discusses how better-engineered font formats can improve the readability of text on websites and documents. The presenter provides a simple example of how this could be implemented.

  • 01:00:00 The video introduces the "better-engineered font formats," which allow for hierarchical substitution of glyphs in a font. The table allows specifying the hierarchy ids of glyphs to be substituted, and the new format uses 32-bit integers for the array length and 24-bit integers for the gids. The offset to the coverage table is also discussed.
  • 01:05:00 The author proposes using one of the remaining 16 bits in the font format to store additional information, such as look up flags or move lookup rules. This would make the font format more expressive and allow for easier manipulation of ligatures and other complex layout rules.
  • 01:10:00 Better-engineered font formats include the CBDTCPLC, the legacy speaks table, the svg format, and the colorv1 effort. The aspect table uses 24-bit offsets to encode more than 64,000 cliffs.
  • 01:15:00 The video discusses better-engineered font formats, which maintain certain properties of the curves regardless of how the points are ordered or reversed. The presenter provides a simple example of how this could be implemented.
  • 01:20:00 This video explains the various better-engineered font formats and how they can improve the readability of text on websites and documents.
  • 01:25:00 In this video, Lawrence discusses Better-Engineered Font Formats, part one of which is expanding the existing font format to 16-bits. In part two, he discusses variations, which is where they are currently at. He discusses higher order beziers and whether or not they were considered, and how rendering them would be more work than just constraining to cubic and quadratic curves. He also mentions that if design is also designing these higher orders, it's not useful or they end up having to write really complicated binomial optimizers. He concludes the video by discussing the pain points that they are all sure of and how introducing anything speculative would not be helpful.
  • 01:30:00 Better-engineered font formats allow for more flexibility in the design of fonts, allowing for variations in weight, width, and optical sizing.
  • 01:35:00 The problem with current variation models is that axes are not orthogonal and have non-linear weights, which can cause a combinatorial explosion problem. The proposed solution, called "War II," addresses these issues by combining multiple changes that together bring variable fonts closer to an expressive system.
  • 01:40:00 The "better-engineered font formats" video discusses how linear interpolation models in variable fonts can result in less-than-ideal results. The presenter proposes a new model that allows for nonlinear interpolation. This model uses a variation table to store information about the input axes and their associated functions.
  • 01:45:00 Better-engineered font formats store variations in two places, Item Variation Store and the tuple variation store. The former is for font variations that are not hidden, while the latter is for hidden variations. There is no requirement that these variation data structures have anything to do with width or weight.
  • 01:50:00 The video discusses better-engineered font formats that allow for more flexibility in designing fonts. The transcript describes how the current font format based on a function with start, peak, and end points can be wasteful in terms of memory and complexity. The new format uses a sparse table structure that specifies the number of rows and each row has an axis index. This allows for smoother curves to be generated without the need for multiple axis IDs.
  • 01:55:00 The author introduces the concept of better-engineered font formats, which are struct fixed structures using the function t. This is not surprising, as t is the basis function of all linear functions. The author then introduces two second degree basis functions, t square and t times two minus t. These functions are used to create quadratic interpolation curves in every location in the design space. Finally, the author introduces a third degree polynomial basis function, t cube fourths minus 60 square fourths. This function is used to create cubic interpolation curves.

02:00:00 - 02:55:00

The video discusses how better-engineered font formats can improve performance and security while avoiding the need for custom font files.

  • 02:00:00 The author provides information on better-engineered font formats, including the use of zero-based and limited-domain basis functions. These formats make it easier to specify rotations accurately, and allow for one-sided fonts.
  • 02:05:00 In this video, the speaker discusses font formats, proposing an optional 16-bit flag fill for each axis, and discussing extrapolation. Part two is less than a couple minutes, while part three is more like 15 minutes.
  • 02:10:00 In this video, Lawrence discusses the use of better-engineered font formats, which allow for greater variation in text layout. The designer can use a variation store to produce variations based on the input axis locations.
  • 02:15:00 This 1-paragraph summary covers the benefits of using flat buffers for font formats, specifically that they are low overhead, lazy, and easy to move to.
  • 02:20:00 The author discusses the idea of better-engineered font formats, which would include flat buffers for representing font tables. He says that this would make it easier to modify font formats, and also speeds up edit-rebuild cycles. In part two, he discusses the intermediate representation of font tables, which is in an XML format. Part three is the author's favorite, and he suggests taking a break for part three. He talks about how a better-engineered font format would be fast to access at runtime.
  • 02:25:00 The author discusses font formats and how they need to be better-engineered in order to speed up font rendering. He discusses the chain context format three and how it is a complex case that needs to be checked one by one. He also discusses the need for better font rendering speed and how font formats can be improved to make this happen.
  • 02:30:00 Martin Huskin and I wanted to improve font formats for performance reasons. He showed how computer science can be used to design better font formats that are easier to execute. The font formats he showed are equivalent to regular expressions, which is a language used to specify text formatting.
  • 02:35:00 The video discusses how font formats can be optimized by the compiler, and how this would improve webfonts performance.
  • 02:40:00 This video reviews how font formats have changed over the years, and how computer science has progressed in order to create more readable and searchable fonts. It argues that we should transition to a model where fonts are just API's that allow for different types of fonts to be implemented, and that this transition can be facilitated by giving developers access to the shader language.
  • 02:45:00 WebAssembly is a portable assembly language that allows for general purpose code to be run on the GPU, which is faster than traditional code. This is similar to the idea behind shipping code in binary formats to the shaper and letting the compiler do the heavy lifting. WebAssembly is also being used for edge computing, where code is run on servers at the edge of the internet.
  • 02:50:00 The presenter explains that better-engineered font formats already exist, and that they can be used to improve font quality and security while avoiding the need for custom font files. The presentation also covers how to use existing software to create and ship these formats.
  • 02:55:00 The author of the video discusses the implications of better-engineered font formats on standards such as PDF X of active funds. They state that the level of activity in the font is not like the random in postscript, and that the font is still modern as a collection of glyphs and the drawings of each glyph is constant. They also mention that the compiler infrastructure can do any kind of sharing it wants, meaning that the font code just calls move to line two when converting it to PDF. This allows for fonts that are natively compiled and fast.

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