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In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses the principle of computational equivalence and its implications for the study of physics. He argues that this principle implies that certain laws may be impossible to predict, and that observers may be embedded in the universe.

**00:00:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses his work in cellular automata, computation, and physics, and the potential for communication with aliens. He says that if aliens were to visit us, we would already have a basis for communication due to our understanding of their existence. He also discusses the features of ExpressVPN and Cash App, and how they help support the podcast.**00:05:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the challenges of communicating with artificial intelligence and extraterrestrial intelligence, and suggests that both forms of intelligence may have been achieved at the same time.**00:10:00**In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics. He explains that the spectrum of computation includes everything from biological life to perfect geometric shapes, and that what makes something intelligent is the detail of its history and not some abstract attribute. He goes on to say that the monolith in the 2001 Space Odyssey is an interesting example of something that is out of place and seems engineered, and that the question of what is the right sign of intelligence is a philosophically doomed issue.**00:15:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the idea of cellular automata and computation, and how they are all interconnected. He talks about the Voyager Golden Record, and how it is a good example of how technology has progressed in the last three decades. He then discusses the concept of interpretability, and how it is important for AI and other forms of computation to be able to communicate with each other. He discusses the idea of a threat from aliens, and how a good way to determine if they are a threat would be to look at their technological advances.**00:20:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the challenges of understanding ethics in the context of artificial intelligence. He suggests that there is a computational irreducibility to ethics, meaning that it is not possible to understand the answer without going through the process of experimentation. He also points out that telling the AI to keep humans "for a thousand years" is an immediately difficult task, as there is no guarantee that the AI would choose the best possible outcome.**00:25:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics in this video. He argues that if the answer to the universe and everything is 42, then we still have to actually run the universe. He also discusses the idea of computation and its various definitions. He suggests that there is a robust notion of computation, something akin to following rules that produces results without a lot of input.**00:30:00**Stephen Wolfram explains that, although there is a robust notion of energy, there is also a complicated and separate relationship between matter and computation. In the early 1900s, mathematicians invented primitive recursion to try and capture computation, but it was ultimately unsuccessful. In 1931, Girdle's theorem demonstrated that arithmetic can be compiled, and in 1936, Turing introduced the Turing machine. In the 1970s, physicists realized that Turing machines are just a small subset of all possible mathematical structures, and that the universe is actually a Turing machine.**00:35:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the principle of computational equivalence, which states that any system that follows simple rules can be equivalently sophisticated in its computation. This principle was a surprise to him, as it contradicted the idea that more sophisticated computation requires more sophisticated rules. However, he believes that the principle will eventually be proven true and that complex systems will eventually be able to be understood using simple rules.**00:40:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the principle of computational equivalence, which states that a thing is equivalent across all systems of which we have knowledge. He discusses how this principle can be used to explain the complexity of behavior exhibited by complex systems, such as brains. He also discusses how the principle may hold true for the physical world, but that there is still much to be learned about it.**00:45:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics in this video. He argues that cellular automata can create structures as structureless as space and time, and suggests that one possibility is that infinity is fundamental to the laws of physics.**00:50:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics in this Lex Fridman podcast. He says that faster-than-light travel is possible, but it's unclear if humans are capable of understanding the underlying rules of the universe.**00:55:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the principle of computational equivalence, which states that systems are fundamentally equivalent in the way that they can only be understood by following their steps and observing the results. This idea has profound implications for the study of physics, as it means that certain laws may be impossible to predict. Wolfram also discusses the potential for observers to be embedded in the universe, and how this may play a role in the understanding of quantum mechanics.

In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics. He describes how his investigations into cellular automata led him to develop the principle of computational equivalence, which he believes is a more accurate way of measuring complexity than mathematics.

**01:00:00**Stephen Wolfram explains how his intuition is that there is a graph structure of nodes and edges in quantum mechanics, which can represent the entire universe. This is a powerful idea because it allows for the equivalence of different structures that could underlie everything in quantum mechanics, including the model itself.**01:05:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics, discussing the importance of properly defining the order of updates in a causal network, and how special relativity can be derived from this.**01:10:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics, and discusses how the minimal version of the model is a single line of orphan language code. He wonders if it is possible that there is something outside of our universe, and if so, what it is.**01:15:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata and their relation to physics. He also discusses his new project, which is to find a fundamental theory of physics.**01:20:00**Stephen Wolfram talks about his journey from particle physics to cellular automata and the surprising discovery that simple programs can do amazing things that go against intuition. He believes that if we find the underlying rules that create quantum field theory, general relativity, and other theories, we will be able to unify them and understand them completely.**01:25:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics with Lex Fridman. He explains that despite seeming to be on opposite sides of determinism and randomness, the real answer lies somewhere in between. This week's idea is about how this dichotomy works. Stephen Wolfram also discusses his experience as a Caltech professor and how he worked with Richard Feynman.**01:30:00**Stephen Wolfram describes how traditional methods of calculus and mathematics can be used to generate pictures of cellular automata, a type of computer simulation. The article goes on to say that, although fireman was very good at calculating, he was not as good at intuiting why his calculations worked. Feynman took Wolfram aside and asked him how he knew the calculations were correct. Wolfram explained that he had looked at the pictures generated by the computer and knew that the patterns were correct.**01:35:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the role of ego in the history of science, and how it can often lead to missed opportunities. He also discusses his experience building a computer language, and how it helped him develop a different attitude towards the possibilities of science.**01:40:00**In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses how having a reasonable amount of intellectual confidence allows one to ride the ego and create exceptional work. He also discusses the book "New Kind of Science," which he wrote.**01:45:00**Stephen Wolfram lays out his vision for cellular automata in his 2002 book "A New Kind of Science". This book presents a general theory of how mathematical equations can be used to describe the behavior of physical systems. Wolfram discusses how this theory can be extended beyond mathematical rules to encompass the behavior of computer programs.**01:50:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics in this video. He finds that some rules produce very complex patterns, even though they are simpler than the rule for generating digits of pi. This discovery was a personal challenge for Wolfram, as he did not want to ignore the mysterious complexity.**01:55:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how his investigations into cellular automata led him to develop the principle of computational equivalence, which he believes is a more accurate way of measuring complexity than mathematics. He also discusses how the older field of mathematics has been slow to adopt new ideas, and how the dynamics of adoption can be Interesting to watch.

In this YouTube video, Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics. He explains that cellular automata are similar to the way our brains and bodies function, and that his goal is to create a computational language that both humans and machines can understand.

**02:00:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses Cellular Automata, Computation, and Physics in this YouTube video. Rule 30, a cellular automaton discovered by Wolfram, is a difficult problem to solve but has the potential to yield unpredictable results. Three problems have been proposed as part of the Rule 30 prize, and the money is not the main point--the problems themselves are what motivate the investigation.**02:05:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata and how they are similar to the way our brains and bodies function. He also discusses the differences between the kind of computation that occurs in these different situations.**02:10:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics. He explains that the special feature of computation in the brain is its connection to goals and the current societal story, and that his goal is to create a computational language that both humans and machines can understand.**02:15:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the impact of his computational language, Wolfram Language, on various fields of study. He also provides a brief overview of the language's features and how they can be used to create computational tools and models.**02:20:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics in this Lex Fridman podcast. He points out that, while computer languages like Wolfram Alpha represent a dream of what AI could be, the relationship between what we've tried to do and the development of knowledge in our civilization is a bit more complicated than that.**02:25:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the idea of "computable knowledge," which he defines as knowledge that can be encoded in a form that can be computed. He describes how this knowledge can be captured in a computational form, and how machine learning can be used to help explore this world. He also discusses the spread of ideas and how it can be affected by personalities and social networks.**02:30:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses his work in Cellular Automata, Computation, and Physics. He discusses the importance of building a knowledge base, and how Wolfram Alpha helps to do that.**02:35:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses his work in Cellular Automata, Computation, and Physics. He explains how his work in this field has led to the development of an "automated knowledge base" that can answer questions automatically.**02:40:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the challenges of pursuing large, complex projects, and how optimism and confidence can be key to overcoming them. He also discusses his work on Wolfram language, which he believes will lead to more automatization of complex ethical questions.**02:45:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the idea of different AI systems with different ethical values, and how the concept of "choice" can be a difficult one when dealing with big, complex issues like politics and economics.**02:50:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the idea of computational contracts, which are contracts that are represented in computational form. Wolfram believes that this is the future of legal contracts, and that it is within reach to create a version of symbolic discourse that can express common sense notions like hunger. He also argues that Wolfram Alpha is legitimately trying to solve the Turing test.**02:55:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the concept of intelligence and how it can be difficult to define. He says that intelligence is essentially just computation that is doing things that we care about. He says that although it is disappointing that humans have not achieved more, they have achieved something special with their subjective experience of consciousness.

In this podcast, Stephen Wolfram discusses how the principle of computational equivalence implies that what happens inside us can achieve the same level of computational sophistication as our whole universe. He credits this principle with helping to shift the focus of science away from human beings and towards the universe itself.

**03:00:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses cellular automata, computation, and physics, and their potential to revolutionize society.**03:05:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses his goals for the future, including his hope for a fundamental theory of physics that is more important than the machine code beneath it. He also discusses the idea of a virtualized consciousness, and how it would be interesting to explore the universe or various other universes.**03:10:00**In this podcast, Stephen Wolfram discusses how the principle of computational equivalence implies that what happens inside us can achieve the same level of computational sophistication as our whole universe. He credits this principle with helping to shift the focus of science away from human beings and towards the universe itself.

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