Summary of 50,000,000x Magnification

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In the "50,000,000x Magnification" YouTube video, a physicist demonstrates how a transmission electron microscope works and how it can be used to image atomic-scale features. The video explains how the microscope works and how to find a defect in a layered material.

  • 00:00:00 In this YouTube video, an electron microscope is shown being used to look for a specific defect in crystalline material. While trying to find the defect, the sample is held on a tiny copper flake.
  • 00:05:00 In this video, a physicist demonstrates how a transmission electron microscope works. The microscope uses a high-energy beam of electrons to cast shadows of objects on a screen. The shadow is magnified based on the relative distance between the object and the screen.
  • 00:10:00 The video describes how to image atomic-scale features using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The technique is called "stem imaging." Once the microscope is set up, the user rasters the electron beam back and forth across the sample line by line, taking the image one pixel at a time. By focusing the electron beam to a point smaller than an atom, the user is able to image multiple atoms at once and get a blurred out signal. Once the sample is in focus, the user plays with the focus to get it as small as possible. Finally, the user zooms in to the sample to view it.
  • 00:15:00 In this video, a scientist explains how to magnify atoms to see defects. The scientist then demonstrates how to find a defect in a layered material.
  • 00:20:00 The video demonstrates how selenite, which is two atoms tall, can be tilted so that one region of the crystal appears different from the rest. This difference is only one atom tall, meaning that it would be half of a layer. However, even if the sample is chock full of these defects, it is still difficult to find and focus on them.

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