Summary of X Jornada de Actualización en Recursos Hídricos

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00:00:00 - 01:00:00

In this section of the video titled "X Jornada de Actualización en Recursos Hídricos," the speaker emphasizes the importance of accurately modeling river behavior by considering fractal dimensions, dimensional parameters, and similarity laws. They discuss the correlation between the Froude number and flow resistance and highlight the need to consider the dimensions and ratios of the materials being studied. The speaker also notes that laboratory data and models may not accurately represent real-world conditions. Overall, the section emphasizes the significance of understanding and modeling the geometry of rivers to accurately predict their behavior.

  • 00:00:00 In this section, the organizers of the event at the Universidad Santo Tomás in Tunja, Colombia welcome participants and provide them with instructions for their safety and enjoyment. They ask attendees to refrain from using their cell phones, consuming food or drinks inside the venue, and to move calmly in the auditoriums. They also outline the emergency procedures and evacuation routes, stressing the importance of staying calm and following the instructions of the identified brigade members. The organizers emphasize their commitment to ensuring a comfortable and secure visit to their facilities.
  • 00:05:00 In this section, the speaker begins by inviting everyone to recite a prayer for engineers, expressing gratitude for the opportunity to be an engineer and acknowledging the responsibilities and obligations that come with the profession. They emphasize the importance of being honest, loyal, and using their knowledge and skills for the service of the community. The speaker also shares a prayer by Thomas Aquinas, asking for clarity of mind, eloquence, and guidance in studying. They conclude by entrusting the reflection and purposes of the conference to the Virgin of Chiquinquirá and expressing confidence in the capabilities of engineers to address the challenges of society. The segment ends with a welcome address by Dean Mónica Elena Rodríguez.
  • 00:10:00 In this section, the speaker introduces the X Jornada de Actualización en Recursos Hídricos, highlighting how civil engineering has improved the well-being of millions of people and contributed to wealth creation. The event aims to showcase the way civil engineers view the world and demonstrate the connection between science and reality, particularly in the areas of hydraulics, hydrology, and water treatment. The speaker emphasizes that the conference has been known for sharing knowledge, experiences, and learnings from around the world. They invite attendees to approach the challenges of the future of civil engineering from different perspectives and focus on water resources. The section concludes with the introduction of a presentation on three-dimensional numerical modeling of erosion processes in river walls with granular sediments.
  • 00:15:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the numerical modeling of the erosion process in longitudinal walls in rivers with granular materials. The study focuses on evaluating the erosion caused by natural river flow on these types of structures, which are designed to protect riverbanks or infrastructure like roads and houses. The speaker explains that this area of research has been relatively understudied compared to bridge structures, and there is a lack of standardized design guidelines for longitudinal walls. The consequences of inadequate design can range from deep placement of the wall (resulting in high construction costs) to shallow placement that leads to imminent collapse. The importance of accurately estimating erosion over time is emphasized, and the speaker describes the evolution of estimation methods from empirical equations to the use of physical models.
  • 00:20:00 In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the importance of research in the field of water resources and clarifies that many studies are based on a condition of uniform granular beds, which is not practical nor realistic in the Andean rivers where the conditions are highly variable. The speaker highlights the use of numerical models, such as one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional models, which allow for the analysis of flow behavior in different scenarios. They also mention various researchers who have worked on studying erosion and scouring, both through physical and numerical modeling. The speaker emphasizes their own research, which focuses on eliminating the concept of abrupt shock and reducing variability in the granular bed material to prevent local scouring near structures. They explain the difference between a physical model, which is a scaled-down version of a real system, and a prototype, which represents the natural system. The speaker also mentions the importance of establishing geometric, kinematic, and dynamic similarities between the prototype and the physical model.
  • 00:25:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the use of physical and numerical models in water resources research. Physical models are often seen as magical by some researchers because they can replicate real-world conditions in a small-scale model. However, physical models can be expensive to build and maintain. On the other hand, numerical models are cost-effective and allow for larger-scale projections. The speaker also mentions the software Flow 3D, which allows for the interaction between fluid flow and sediment transport. The methodology used in the research includes a review of databases, testing in a laboratory channel, the use of statistical models, and the validation of mathematical expressions. Two types of channels were used to analyze different conditions, and measurements were taken before and after the flow events to assess the behavior of the material.
  • 00:30:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the setup of the experimental channels used in the study. One channel was a curved channel with a width of 0.15 meters and a length of 3 meters. The other channel was a straight channel with a width of 29 centimeters and a length of 5 meters. The channels were made of acrylic material to prevent erosion damage, and a grid system was installed to prevent the entry of fine material into the pumping system. The speaker also explains the process of obtaining the sediment material from the river, which required trips to a specific location to find the right texture and size. Additionally, the speaker explains the scaling process used to create a representative granulometry curve for the laboratory experiments.
  • 00:35:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the parameters and models used in the numerical modeling process. They mention that the Flow 3D model requires establishing the physical model equations for sediment transport, as well as determining parameters such as sediment percentages, mean diameter, and angle of repose. The speaker also explains that the model incorporates various turbulence models, which are iteratively tested and calibrated to match the measured velocity data from the physical model. Additionally, they mention the scaling of the geometry to match the prototype conditions, and the establishment of boundary and initial conditions for the numerical analysis. Different cell sizes are tested in the meshing process, with smaller cell sizes providing greater precision but longer modeling times. The speaker also mentions the establishment of boundary conditions, including flow rate and sediment conditions, as well as initial conditions to improve computational efficiency.
  • 00:40:00 In this section, the speaker explains the measurements taken in the laboratory and the validation process for the equations used. They mention that there are over 100 equations available, but not all apply to the specific scenario being studied. The speaker also discusses the use of statistical methods and software to analyze and validate the equations. They explain the concept of dimensionless parameters and their relevance to the phenomenon being studied. Additionally, the speaker discusses the results obtained from the experiments, specifically related to a curved channel, and mentions the use of both laboratory observations and numerical models in the analysis of the material.
  • 00:45:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the characteristics of uniform material in water channels. They explain that larger stones tend to become encased or armored by smaller material, causing a lack of movement. This phenomenon can lead to greater erosion and larger excavations in smaller channels. The speaker also discusses the use of different turbulence models and the calibration and validation of the numerical model. They highlight the correlation between simulated and measured data, indicating a good level of accuracy. The analysis also reveals the formation of random erosion pits due to the variation in sediment caused by stones becoming encased by smaller particles.
  • 00:50:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the analysis and validation of data regarding the behavior of water flow and erosion in different conditions. They explain that the data collected may sometimes be atypical, requiring a critical evaluation. They compare their research to that of another professor who has been studying erosion in uniform materials, highlighting the differences in conditions. The speaker also presents the results of their own analysis, correlating various variables through mathematical calculations. They propose an equation that combines three different variables to improve the correlation and obtain higher statistical values. The new equation shows a significant improvement compared to previous research conducted by other institutions.
  • 00:55:00 This transcript is from a section of a video titled "X Jornada de Actualización en Recursos Hídricos". In this section, the speaker discusses the importance of modeling the geometry of rivers using fractal dimensions and the correlation between the ratio of the Froude number and the flow resistance with the correlation coefficient. The speaker mentions the use of dimensional parameters such as friction, symmetry, and dimensionless numbers in modeling river behavior. The speaker also references the use of similarity laws in simulating river behavior, including the effects of dimensions such as ratio and number of Froude. However, the speaker notes that these similarity laws can only be applied when studying the physical conditions of the model, as the use of laboratory data and models may not accurately represent real-world conditions. The speaker concludes that it is important to consider the dimensions and ratios of the material being studied in order to accurately model river behavior.

01:00:00 - 02:00:00

In this section of the YouTube video titled "X Jornada de Actualización en Recursos Hídricos", the speaker discusses the importance of conducting technical studies when designing infrastructure for water infiltration. These studies include topographic, soil mechanics, and hydrological analyses to determine the appropriate coefficient and capacity for water infiltration. They also address the feasibility of strategies in addressing climate change, considering population growth and anthropogenic impacts. The speaker emphasizes the need to implement infrastructure to address the challenges posed by climate change. Additionally, they discuss the quality of rainwater and the use of filters to treat it, explaining that rainwater can be neutralized when it comes into contact with surfaces like concrete, and filters are mainly used to remove microbiological contamination.

  • 01:00:00 In this section of the YouTube video titled "X Jornada de Actualización en Recursos Hídricos", the speaker discusses the use of numerical models in hydraulics. They explain that the goal is to establish a relationship between the prototype and the model, and to ensure that the values obtained from the model are reliable. To do this, the speaker explains that they ran the numerical model several times, both forward and backward, in order to establish the velocities over the physical model. The error obtained was very small, under 5%. The speaker then discusses the study of two types of canals, one curved and one rectangular. They explain that the width of the channel was a limiting factor in their study, as they were unable to achieve a solution with a small channel. They also mention that the problem with a rectangular channel was the robustness of the model, which led to high costs. The speaker then discusses the process of applying a numerical equation in a real-world scenario or consultant setting. They explain that the fase 3 of the equation is the final step, which involves socialization between professionals in order to establish criteria for the design of walls that can pass a legal stage. The speaker concludes with a thank you and the rest of the conference will continue with a discussion on integrated management of hydric resources. They are José Libardo Basilio, A magister in sciences and director of construction at a group constructor in Cipro, Mexico. They graduated from the Universidad veracruzana civil in 2018, where they studied civil engineering.
  • 01:05:00 In this section, Jaime Basilio shares his experience working in the private and government sectors in Mexico with a focus on sustainable water technology. He started his career in 2018 with Mama Wader, a technology company that develops sustainable solutions for water management, where he serves as the technical manager. In 2019, he founded the construction company Cipro, where he currently holds the position of director of construction. Both of Basilio's companies are dedicated to implementing sustainable water systems, and he has collaborated with the United Nations on projects such as the Sistema de capture de lluvias artificiales CIDIADA in Veracruz. In addition to his own initiatives, Basilio is also involved in civil society, serving as a member of the Asociación Mexicana de Sistemas de Captura de Aguas de lluvias (AMSCA), which is affiliated with the IRSA and ARSA international and American associations for capturing rainwater.
  • 01:10:00 In this section, the video discusses the importance of water as a vital resource essential for sustaining life on Earth. The availability of water depends on the geographical location and season of the year, and civilizations have long recognized the importance of managing water resources efficiently. For example, in ancient Egypt, the delta of the Nile River grew during the rainy season, making it ideal for agriculture. Similarly, the Mayans in North America, primarily located in the Yucatan Peninsula, used cenotes (natural sinkholes) to store rainwater for their needs. The use of water by humans has led to several issues, such as climate change, species extinction, and soil and water pollution. The video argues that we need to transition from linear to circular models of water usage that prioritize sustainability and conservation.
  • 01:15:00 In this section, the video discusses the impact of urbanization on water resources. It highlights how the use of impermeable surfaces such as pavements, rooftops, and concrete structures reduces water infiltration, leading to increased surface runoff and the need for drainage infrastructure. The video mentions the Mexican policy of integrated water resource management, which aims to manage the country's hydrological basins, promote social participation, and ensure gender equality. The video also touches on the five key principles of integrated water resource management promoted by the Global Water Partnership (GWP), including the finite and vulnerable nature of water, the need for participation in decision-making, and the recognition of water as a public good with economic value. The video concludes with the Pico de Orizaba, the highest volcano in Mexico, emphasizing the importance of sustainable water resource management for improving people's lives.
  • 01:20:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the impact of climate change on glaciers and dams. They mention that glaciers in high-altitude regions are melting, leading to a decrease in the number of perpetual glaciers. This phenomenon is not only happening in South America but also in the Swiss Alps and other mountain ranges. The speaker also highlights the vulnerability of dams, citing incidents where dams have failed catastrophically. However, advancements in technology, research, and maintenance have helped reduce the failure rate. The speaker emphasizes the importance of listening to users and professionals, coordinating different disciplines, and having long-term planning in water infrastructure management. They also mention the need for legislation and financing to support research and development in the water sector. Additionally, the speaker introduces the concept of sustainable strategies such as nature-based solutions and the Australian-developed DUSA.
  • 01:25:00 In this section, the speaker talks about the importance of water-sensitive urban design and water culture in promoting efficient water use. They emphasize the need for environmental education and user participation to develop a positive water culture, noting the lack of such culture in their own country. The speaker praises the use of efficient irrigation methods, such as sprinklers and drip irrigation, to conserve water in agricultural practices. They also highlight the use of simple devices like aerators in faucets to reduce water consumption. The speaker mentions that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to water-related problems and that experimentation and scientific research are necessary to address different situations. They discuss their experience with an organization that focused on water research and exchange in Australia, where water scarcity prompted a transition towards more sustainable practices. The speaker highlights the importance of infrastructure and strategies aimed at restoring the hydrological cycle, such as rainwater harvesting and artificial wetlands. They also mention the concept of water-sensitive urban design (DUSA), which emphasizes the importance of being sensitive to water in urban planning. The speaker concludes by mentioning the promotion of nature-based solutions by the United Nations, highlighting the current project called "Sitiadad".
  • 01:30:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the use of eco-based solutions to address the challenges of climate change, biodiversity conservation, and economic benefits. The discussion focuses on the utilization of ecosystem services, such as water absorption, concentration, and capturing for the supply of potable water. The speaker highlights the importance of integrating fluvial integral management, which includes capturing rainwater from various sources, inorganic and organic water treatment, and proper storage of water to prevent contamination. The speaker also emphasizes the use of rainwater harvesting systems, including urban rainwater harvesting, which involves capturing and treating rainwater from rooftops, infiltration, and rainwater management. The speaker also mentions hydropneumatic systems that can be used to evaluate the quality of water infiltration systems and extract water for use in various applications such as landscaping, urban areas, and industrial settings.
  • 01:35:00 In this section of the YouTube video, the speaker discusses the history and current state of water supply in Mexico City. The city was originally built on an island, and the inhabitants of the original Venice in America used canals to irrigate their crops. However, when the Spanish arrived, they drained the lake and filled it with dirt to build their own version of Venice. Mexico City's current largest church, the Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico City, was built on this site. The church has a unique architectural feature called "Chueca", which is a roadway that runs parallel to the church's façade. Despite the city's modern infrastructure, Mexico City faces significant water supply problems. The city's water supply comes from a combination of groundwater and a network of acueducts, which uses a significant amount of energy to transport water. The city suffers from uneven water distribution, with some areas receiving more water than others. Mexico City's water supply system is also facing increasing demand from a growing population, and the current system is already at its maximum capacity. The speaker notes that many of the city's residents rely on rainwater harvesting systems to supplement their water supply. To address these challenges, the city has implemented various water conservation measures, including the installation of filtration systems in household rainwater harvesting systems. The city's rainwater harvesting systems use a combination of Mexican and German technologies to filter and maintain water quality. The city's rainwater harvesting program is also designed to educate children about water conservation and sustainable infrastructure.
  • 01:40:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the transition from a young age of children towards utilizing rainwater harvesting systems in schools. They mention that the transition occurs for children as they anticipate rainfall for use in their schooling, ablution in schools or to solve their basic needs. The speaker further explains that establishing rainwater harvesting systems such as wells or rainwater harvesting tanks automatically provides water supply to schools and other public areas where water scarcity is common. The speaker concludes by suggesting that eliminating water-related diseases during rainy seasons such as rota and diarrhea is a sustainable solution since it ensures access to clean water.
  • 01:45:00 In this section of the YouTube video titled "X Jornada de Actualización en Recursos Hídricos", the speaker discusses the feasibility of circular water supply, specifically regarding low-cost strategies. They explain that although it may be expensive to install these systems in remote areas, it can be more cost-effective in urban areas. The speaker also encourages more sustainable practices, such as using rainwater harvesting systems, which can be recovered within three years with a solar-powered water heater or photovoltaic panels. Lastly, the speaker addresses the issue of water exploitation in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, emphasizing the need for alternative sources of sustainable water supply.
  • 01:50:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the importance of conducting technical studies when designing infrastructure for water infiltration. These studies include topographic, soil mechanics, and hydrological analyses to determine the appropriate coefficient and capacity for water infiltration. Meanwhile, in Mexico, the constitution recognizes the human right to water but states that water is the property of the nation. The municipalities are responsible for managing and administrating water resources, and there are efforts to subsidize water and inject public funds to ensure access for all. However, the speaker acknowledges that Mexico still faces challenges in terms of water quality, scarcity, and wastewater treatment. Despite these challenges, efforts are being made to transition towards better water resource management. Finally, the question of feasibility is raised, considering factors such as overpopulation, contamination of water sources, and the potential impacts of climate change on water resources. Specifically, regions with high precipitation may face water deficiencies in the future, while desert areas, such as the northern zone of Mexico, already struggle with low precipitation levels.
  • 01:55:00 In this section, the speaker answers two questions. The first question relates to the feasibility of strategies in addressing climate change considering population growth and anthropogenic impacts. The speaker mentions that projections of precipitation variations have been made in Mexico, indicating that some regions may experience increased precipitation while others may have decreased precipitation. However, based on these studies, it is still worth implementing infrastructure to address these challenges. The second question is about the quality of rainwater and the use of filters to treat it. The speaker explains that rainwater, even if it becomes acidic due to pollutants, can be neutralized when it comes into contact with surfaces like concrete. The filters are mainly used to remove microbiological contamination from rainwater when it comes into contact with roofs in urban areas.

02:00:00 - 03:00:00

In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the measurements and characteristics of flocs in water samples, particularly their perimeter, area, and circularity. These measurements help determine the shape, compactness, and sedimentation potential of the flocs. The speaker also explains the importance of optimizing water treatment plants by incorporating coagulation, flocculation, and filtration processes. They highlight the various mechanisms of particle removal in filters and emphasize that the size of flocs is influenced by the turbidity of the raw water. Overall, this section provides valuable insights into the characterization and management of flocs in water treatment systems.

  • 02:00:00 In this section of the video, the presenter discusses the importance of water resources in agriculture and how they can affect crop yields. The speaker emphasizes the need for farmers to understand the water cycles and how to effectively manage their irrigation systems to achieve optimal results. The video also includes examples of successful water management techniques, such as drip irrigation and soil moisture sensors, that have helped increase crop yields and reduce water usage. Overall, the presentation highlights the critical role that water resources play in the agriculture industry and the need for sustainable practices to ensure a reliable water supply for future generations.
  • 02:05:00 In this section of the video, the background music continues to play.
  • 02:10:00 In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the importance of hydric resources in the development and sustainability of agriculture. They explain how water is a critical resource for crop growth and irrigation, and how the availability of water can affect agricultural productivity and food security. The speaker also talks about the need to monitor and manage water resources efficiently to ensure sustainable agriculture. Throughout the section, the speaker highlights the various tools and technologies available to monitor and manage water resources, including remote sensing, soil moisture sensors, and groundwater monitoring.
  • 02:15:00 In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the importance of water resources management. They explain how water resources are essential for human life, agriculture, and industry, and how their sustainable management is crucial for the future of sustainability. They also touch on the challenges facing water resources, such as droughts, floods, and environmental degradation, and the various solutions and strategies that can be used to address these challenges. Finally, they emphasize the need for a holistic approach to water resources management, one that takes into account the interdependence of different sectors and stakeholders, and the need for shared responsibility and Collective action to ensure the long-term sustainability of our water resources.
  • 02:20:00 In this section of the YouTube video, the presenter discusses the importance of using different types of resources to ensure a sustainable water supply. The video features images and music to help illustrate the various water resources, including rivers, streams, lakes, and groundwater. The presenter emphasizes the need to conserve and use these resources wisely to maintain a healthy environment for generations to come. The video also highlights the different technologies and methods that can be used to manage water resources and ensure their sustainability.
  • 02:25:00 In this section of the video, the host discusses the use of water resources for agricultural purposes. The host explains that at present, water is being used intensely for agricultural activities, which is leading to a decrease in water availability. The host also gives examples of how agricultural practices can contribute to water pollution. The host provides some suggestions for sustainable agriculture practices that can help conserve water resources, such as drip irrigation and crop rotation. Finally, the host concludes that sustainable agriculture practices are crucial to ensure the availability of water resources for future generations.
  • 02:30:00 In this section, the speaker presents a methodology for the characterization of blogs in low-turbidity and alkaline water using image analysis. Juan Pablo González Galvis is a constructor in architecture and engineering from Santo Bogotá, an environmental engineering specialist at the Universidad Torcuato Di Tella (UTPCP) in Chile, a master's student in civil engineering at the University of Los Andes in Chile, and a doctorate in engineering at the University of Ottawa in Canada. The speaker also mentions his published work in renowned international engineering journals in the field of treating potable water using suspended and sedimentation flotation technologies.
  • 02:35:00 In this section, Dr. Juan Pablo González Galvis introduces a new method for measuring and analyzing particles in water treatment systems in Boyacá and Colombia. He explains that the system currently being used is based on multiple-stage filtration, but is being affected by climate change, precipitation, sediment, algae, and cianobacteria. The example of a filtration system in action is provided, where the water coming to people's homes contains particles and shouldn't be consumed. Thus, the responsibility falls on engineers and scientists to optimize the existing water treatment systems to ensure safe drinking water.
  • 02:40:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the use of a dissolved air flotation system for water treatment. This system is capable of treating water with high turbidity levels, even exceeding 100 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. The speaker emphasizes the importance of not assuming data in engineering design and proposes solutions to determine the diameter of floc particles in sedimentation calculations. They also explain the process of dissolved air flotation, which involves coagulation and flocculation processes. The treated water is recirculated through a tank, where air is injected under pressure to create microbubbles that attach to the particles, forming aggregates. The sludge settles at the top of the unit, while the clarified water is discharged from the bottom. The speaker highlights the need for Colombia to be prepared for implementing these flotation processes to meet water treatment requirements.
  • 02:45:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the need for a low-cost method to characterize flocs in water treatment plants. They explain that while there are expensive technologies available, such as dynamic particle analyzers and high-speed cameras, these are not feasible for developing countries like Colombia due to their high costs. Instead, the speaker proposes using cellphone cameras, specifically Huawei phones with high-resolution cameras, to analyze flocs. They conducted tests using different water samples and found that the method was effective in characterizing flocs in low-turbidity and low-alkalinity waters. This low-cost approach could be a viable solution for water treatment plants with limited resources.
  • 02:50:00 In this section, the speaker discusses their experimental setup and methodology for measuring the diameter and other characteristics of the blogs in water samples. They explain that they conducted tests using different doses of coagulant and measured the pH levels. They also mention using a TikTok ring light and a black cardboard background to minimize noise in the photographs. The speaker then mentions using a program called Limaye to process the images and obtain measurements. They show the processed images and the resulting data, noting that they conducted three tests with similar results. Ultimately, they were able to determine the average diameter of the blogs in the water sample.
  • 02:55:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the measurements and characteristics of different flocs in water samples. They mention the perimeter, area, and circularity of the flocs, which indicate their shape and compactness. The circularity values suggest that the flocs can easily sediment but may vary in their resistance to fracture. The speaker also describes the measurements for different water sources and their respective flocs' properties. They emphasize the importance of optimizing treatment plants by adding coagulation, flocculation, and filtration processes. Additionally, the speaker explains the different mechanisms of particle removal in filters, such as mechanical screening, sedimentation, and interception. The speaker concludes by highlighting the key factor that influences the size of flocs, which is the turbidity of the raw water.

03:00:00 - 03:15:00

This YouTube video titled "X Jornada de Actualización en Recursos Hídricos" covers various aspects of water treatment and research. The speaker discusses the results of their flocculation research, highlighting the impact of initial turbidity on floc size and the effectiveness of different measurement methods. They also discuss the importance of calibration and optimizing laboratory equipment for accurate results. Furthermore, circularity of flocs and its effect on sedimentation time is explained. The section concludes with the speaker expressing gratitude to the participants and organizing a group photo.

  • 03:00:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the results of their research on flocculation in water treatment. They found that the size of the flocs formed was primarily dependent on the initial turbidity of the water, with higher turbidity resulting in larger flocs. They also compared the effectiveness of using multiple photographs versus a single photograph to measure floc size and found that the results were statistically similar. As a result, they published a scientific article on their methodology and received international recognition for their findings. They also received invitations to publish in prestigious journals such as Job journal and RACERS. The section concludes with a question from an audience member and the announcement that they are moving on to the next point of the presentation.
  • 03:05:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the calibration of the laboratory equipment to ensure optimal and accurate results for future research. They emphasize the importance of working with calibrated equipment to optimize the investigation. Additionally, they mention that the polymer can be added to the water in two stages for maximum effectiveness. In response to another question, the speaker states that comparing results obtained from a cell phone camera to those obtained from a high-resolution camera would be a future phase of their research. They also compare the efficiency of different sedimentation methods, concluding that both dissolved air flotation and sedimentation by weighting yielded similar results. Lastly, they mention that the intensity of light and the number of pixels can affect the quality of the photo, and they found that illuminating the flasks from below provided better clarity.
  • 03:10:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the circularity of flocs and how it affects their sedimentation. They explain that circular flocs are easily sedimented, while oval flocs tend to erode more easily and take longer to settle. The sedimentation time depends on the circularity factor, with flocs close to one settling in about an hour, while flocs with circularity less than 0.5 may take up to two hours.
  • 03:15:00 In this section, the speaker thanks everyone for their participation and asks them to gather for a group photo before the event comes to an end. They guide the attendees, including the speakers and students, to the center of the auditorium and then towards the Hall of Santo Domingo. The speaker expresses gratitude and concludes by saying "thank you" multiple times.

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