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In this section of the lecture, the speaker discusses power sources called FACTS, specifically converters. The speaker explains that converters can be divided into two categories: non Isolated and isolated transformer-based types. The non-isolated converters use bridges to connect the input and output without galvanic isolation, while the isolated converters use transformers in separate paths. Examples of converters include back-elevators, boost converters, and Cuckoo converters. The speaker also discusses various circuit components used in power conversion circuits, such as inductors, capacitors, and conductors. The speaker analyzes the converter pack, commercial box, cube, zeta, and CP, while considering the voltage and current. They also mention different types of transformer insulation, such as unidirectional and bidirectional excitation. Finally, the speaker discusses various types of transformers, such as flashback, football, media puente, and puente completo. They explain the different variants of transformers taken from these models.

**00:00:00**In this section of the lecture, the topic is power sources, specifically FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems). The lecture uses reference materials, including converters, as a starting point for teaching about FACTS. The lecturer explains that FACTS can be divided into two categories: non-isolated and isolated (transformer-based) types. Non-isolated FACTS are converters with no galvanic isolation between the input and output, while isolated FACTS have separate circuit paths and usually include a transformer. The lecture emphasizes the differences between the two types and provides examples of each. The converters discussed in this section include back-elevators, boost converters, and cuc converters. The lecturer also mentions the carrying capacity, step-up transformer (Z), and step-down transformer (Cp) as variants of the back-elevators, boost converters, and cuc converters. The lecture uses diagrams and examples of circuit diagrams to illustrate the material.**00:05:00**In this section, the speaker discusses various circuit components used in power conversion circuits, such as inductors, capacitors, and conductors. The speaker then focuses on analyzing the converter pack, commercial box, cube, zeta, and CP. They also address the various types of transformer insulation, such as unidirectional and bidirectional excitation. The speaker then explains the different types of transformers, such as flashback, fútbol, media puente, and puente completo. They further discuss some variants of transformers taken from these models. Finally, the speaker talks about some details related to the components used in converters, such as the doctor, fuel, oscillator, and inverter.**00:10:00**In this section, the speaker discusses the concepts of electric power related to circuits with inductors and capacitors. They explain how the voltage and current are related to the derivative and integral of the curve being followed, and they use examples of magnetization and the energy stored in inductors to illustrate their points. They also mention that the voltage stored in a capacitor varies based on the charge flowing into and out of it, and they explain how the area under the curve of a capacitor can be used to calculate the power being consumed or generated. The speaker concludes with a brief discussion of the relationship between the voltage and current in a circuit with an inductor. Overall, the speaker provides an overview of the principles of electricity in circuits with inductors and capacitors and how their properties can be used to calculate power and energy in various contexts.**00:15:00**In this section, the speaker discusses the fundamental concepts of time response, which are the basis for the sources consulted. The speaker then compares a linear power source with a conjunctive power source and justifies the use of regulated voltage sources. The speaker outlines the requirements for a regulated power source, including input voltage, output voltage, and the minimum voltage drop required by the transistor regulator. It is concluded that regulated voltage sources have a high disipation of power, which poses a significant challenge to the cooling system. The speaker subsequently transitions to a discussion of the comparative functioning of linear and conjunctive power sources, through analysis of the Pack model.**00:20:00**In this section of the UTN FRC 2021 video on electromagnetism, the speaker discusses the concept of a "manto" or "shutter" that can control the opening and closing of a switch. When the switch is closed, a manto is used to close it or open it. The manto is opened by a voltage pulse and the duration of the pulse determines when the switch will open or close. If the switch is closed and a manto is used to open it, there will be a sudden reversal of the voltage. This is because the inductance from the inductor builds up across the switch and causes a rapid change in voltage, which may destroy the switch. To prevent this, the switch must be opened gradually. The speaker suggests using a diode to achieve this, as it allows the current to continue flowing smoothly through the diode and the switch can be shown open or closed as long as the diode conducts. Overall, the first step is to ensure that there is a path for the current to flow through the inductor when the switch is closed. This requires a component in series with the switch that allows current to flow. This could be a resistor or diode. Once this is established, the voltagedrop across the inductor can be used to calculate the maximum current that can safely flow through the inductor, and the switch can be opened gradually using a blinding shutter or special remote control**00:25:00**In this section, the key to understanding the relationship between capacitors, inductors, and diodes is knowing when they are open or closed. When the inductance is close to zero, the capacitor and the surface area of the diode are connected in series. This is called a voltage divider. When the capacitor and diode are connected in parallel to the inductor, the response of the inductor allows the current to be discontinuous, while the response of the capacitor requires the current to be continuous. As such, this or Theo point in time is the instant of time where the capacitor and diode are connected in parallel to the inductor, and the duration of time in which the current decreases is discontinuous. Finally, this is the instant of time where the capacitor and diode are connected in parallel to the inductor, and the current decreases is discontinuous. The cycle of work of the inglés cut has been defined.**00:30:00**In this section, the video begins by discussing the circuit that includes a battery and a resistor, stating that the current is flowing with a certain voltage. The video then moves on to this circuit's voltage fluctuations, including a mean and variance. The speaker suggests that the level of induction in this circuit is significant, as it is fluctuating in value and is very important to the operation of the circuit. The speaker also notes that the inductor is what causes the fluctuations in this circuit. The video then moves on to the second theme, which is the conversation around different voltage values. The speaker explains that the voltage is a fixed value that is used to power the circuit. However, when the circuit is operating, the difference between the input voltage and the voltage at various points in the circuit can affect the current flow and energy storage.**00:35:00**In this section, the speaker explains the concept of discontinuities in energy storage in an inductor during a power conversion process. The key point the speaker emphasizes is the role of the inductor in allowing for discontinuity in the attention, which allows energy to be transferred efficiently from one voltage level to another. The speaker also discusses the relationship between the time duration and the discontinuity in the attention, and how this relationship can be used to optimize the conversion process. The speaker uses the example of the inductor overload (MDD) transfer function, which converts 5V to 10V by quickly switching on and off the voltage to the inductor. The speaker advises that both the turn-on and turn-off times should be considered when optimizing the conversion process.**00:40:00**In this section, we are discussing the value of capacitors and inductors in reference to energy. The speaker emphasizes that the value of the inductor, which determines how the energy is stored within it, is not the same as the growth rate of the current. The appropriate value of inductance will depend on the growth rate of the current. If the goal is to simply filter or shape the current flow, a very large value of inductance is typically used, but if the goal is to also store energy, a smaller value of inductance is appropriate. The value of capacitance is also discussed, and its relationship with the energy of the system is examined. The speaker emphasizes that proper calculation of the voltage and capacitance is important for avoiding fluctuation in the current. The mathematical equation for calculating these values is discussed, and its various options are considered.**00:45:00**In this section of the YouTube video, the speaker discusses the concept of a simulator used to design a converter. In the converter design, there is a simple circuit that includes a diode and a load resistor. The speaker aims to discover the values of various components by performing a simulation on the circuit. He begins by designing a clock bridge with capacitors in the places where the transistors are. The equivalent resistances of the load and inductor are calculated by performing a parametric analysis. The speaker then notes that during the topic, the shape of the current waveform changes as the resistance of the load changes. The speaker emphasizes that the initial slopes of the current waveform are maintained even when the resistance of the load changes. Finally, the speaker notes that there is a critical resistance point where the current waveform changes discontinuously. This critical resistance is the point where the circuit's current inductance becomes zero. Therefore, when the resistance of the load reaches this point, the current in the circuit changes in a discontinuous manner. The speaker refers to the state in which the current changes discontinuously as the "regimen de circulación de corriente discontinua" or "regimen de conducción discontinua".**00:50:00**In this section of the UTN FRC video, the concept of Inductor L with two modes of operation is discussed. The inductor L can have two modes of operation: continuous circulation mode and discontinuous circulation mode. In continuous circulation mode, the current flows continuously in one direction. However, when there is discontinuity in the current, the voltage in the inductor changes. In discontinuous circulation mode, the voltage can be larger than the voltage in continuous circulation mode. The speaker deduces that the voltage may be greater if they turn to the discontinuous circulation mode. Further, they discuss the transition point between the two modes, which is at the border where the current is zero. They examine the resistive value of the critical resistance and determine that values higher than this critical resistance put the resistor on continuous circulation mode. They also define the del taller again and determine that it is equal to 20 over d when it is on continuous circulation mode. However, the menor value is 2 l on the edge of discontinuity, equal to 1 minus the critical value of d, known as delta l. They then delve deeper into the discontinuous circulation mode, discuss the destination coefficient of the design (DCD), and examine the continuous circulation mode by analyzing the significance of the value. They draw a graphic and show that in continuous circulation mode, the voltage remains constant.**00:55:00**In this section, the speaker discusses the operation of a combined circuit in continuity and determining the K-value for it. The speaker emphasizes that the amount of current that passes through a combined circuit in continuity should be within the maximum current rating, which is the K-value. The speaker then goes on to talk about the relation between the current flowing through a circuit while in a steady state and the voltage magnitude and time period being equal to zero. The speaker refers to this as the zero-period integral technique and explains that it involves finding the first instance of the integral of the time derivative of a certain integral being equal to zero. The speaker then proceeds to provide the mathematical equation for the maximum current that flows through the circuit, which is the area of the triangle under the peak current. The speaker concludes with a discussion of the relation between the current flowing through the circuit while in a steady state and the voltage magnitude being equal to the voltage drop on a resistor.

This section of the "UTN FRC, año 2021, Electrónica de Potencia, Clase 9" video discusses the concept of power electronics and its relationship to various parameters, including voltage, current, and peak values. The speaker calculates the RMS value by simplifying an equation that factors voltage, current, and cycles, and emphasizes that the RMS value only has meaning in a positive work cycle. The lecture then moves on to discussing a new relationship between conversion between state and d, defined as k. The presenter uses a spreadsheet and a visualization method to accurately interpret simulation results, and demonstrates a power electronics simulation in which two capacitors are charged and discharged through a diode to illustrate the effects of component degradation and the calculation of critical frequency and resistance. The relationship between the input and output voltage of a rectifier and the back bias voltage of a reducer is also discussed, including the set input and output voltage and the difference between a rectifier and back voltage use.

**01:00:00**In this section, the speaker is discussing the concept of power electronics in context of a specific project. They mention various parameters related to power electronics, such as voltage, current, and peak values. The speaker also talks about how these parameters can be used to calculate the average value of power, known as the RMS value. To calculate the RMS value, the speaker suggests using an equation that takes into account the voltage, current, and the number of cycles in the phenomenon being studied. The speaker suggests simplifying this equation by using the square root of the voltage and current terms, as well as the number of cycles involved. The speaker also emphasizes that the RMS value only has meaning in the context of a positive work cycle, as a negative work cycle does not make sense physically.**01:05:00**In this section of "UTN FRC, año 2021, Electrónica de Potencia, Clase 9" video, the new relationship of conversion between state and d is discussed. Here, the new relationship is defined as k, which is important for the continuity of the function. If the function is continuous, k is equal to d, heretofore known as MDD, but this is only valid in limited cases, namely the CCM. In contrast, if the function is discontinuous, the second equation is used, which is known as AC. The presenter uses a spreadsheet to compare various values and observe the response of the system. However, when confronted with an issue, the presenter acknowledges the need to visualize the system response and establish the correct visualization method to accurately interpret the simulation results.**01:10:00**In this section of the lecture, the instructor demonstrates a power electronics simulation in which two capacitors are charged and discharged through a diode. The simulation illustrates the effects of component degradation and the calculation of the critical frequency and resistance. The resistance critical value is calculated using the formula: rcriticó = Rt - 1/d, where Rt is the relationship between resistance and frequency of the diode and d is half the period. By changing the value of the commonly used 10 Ω resistor to 33.33 Ω, the simulation shows that the diode behavior shifts from a continuous to discontinuous function. The instructor emphasizes the importance of similarly calculating the critical frequency and resistance values for different circuits and components.**01:15:00**In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the relationship between the input and output voltage of a rectifier and the back bias voltage of a reducer. The speaker explains that when the back bias voltage is increased, the output voltage also increases until it reaches the maximum recommended value of 28 volts. After that, if the back bias voltage is further increased, the output voltage will decrease as the device enters a breakdown mode. The speaker also highlights the difference between selecting a rectifier and a back voltage uses, where the set input voltage is the entry voltage, and the set output voltage is the output voltage plus 2 volts. Additionally, the speaker acknowledges that they have finished discussing the topic a minute earlier than planned, and they will move on to the next topic of the series. Although they are not planning to repeat the topic anymore, they will direct their attention to the relationship between the different converters based on the video they are watching.

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