Summary of Capitulo 16. De Frondizi a Ongania.

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In the early 1960s, Argentina was in a period of rapid economic growth. However, the government was facing increasing pressure from the military. In September 1962, a military coup attempt failed, but this led to a series of conflicts between the Nationalist officers and the pro-Peronist officers. Finally, in June 1966, General Juan Carlos Onganía assumed the presidency after a military coup.

  • 00:00:00 In 1962, Argentina was divided into two internal military factions, the blue and red lines. The blue faction, made up of nationalist military officers, proposed withdrawing Argentina's military from politics and demanding elections as soon as possible. The anti-Peronist faction, made up of senior military officers, sought to prevent Peron's return to power, even if this meant altering the democracy system. In September of that year, the internal conflict between the two factions exploded into a four-day battle that kept the country in turmoil. The citizens of Buenos Aires - who were watching a parade of military units and tanks - witnessed key strategic positions take siege. Finally, on September 22nd, blue and red factions fought in Plaza Constitution, and the commander of the colorado faction, General Juan Carlos Ongania, surrendered. This event marked the beginning of the end for the Argentine military's political power, as the peronist party, which was once the largest political force in the country, was now proscribed. In the ensuing elections, held in February of 1958, Arturo Frondizi, a peronist politician with a strong track record, was elected president. Frondizi, who was seen as the alternative to the peronist party for a
  • 00:05:00 In the early 1960s, Argentina's economy was growing rapidly based on industrial development. The government of this country was led by a party with a majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives, but due to a deep political weakness, the military and the radicalism of the people from the very beginning devoted themselves to obstructing the government's work from the very beginning. Frondizi, who had taken office a few months earlier, quickly responded with a 60% wage increase, a series of laws favoring industrial development, agreements with European and American companies in the oil industry, and stimulation of investments in strategic areas like cellulose, energy, and the automobile and steel industries. On the political front, he decreed an amnesty and allowed several leading union leaders to retake control of their unions, but failed to keep his promise to lift the proscription of the Peronist party. In little time, policies designed to develop Argentina rapidly produced an increase in industrial activity, but quickly created a massive influx of imported supplies that quickly turned into inflation and a debt payment deficit. To control this situation, the government asked for a loan from the international monetary fund and launched a plan of fiscal adjustment, including strong measures of austerity. However, the military's pressure continued to mount
  • 00:10:00 In 1962, after the election of Arturo Frondizi as president of Argentina, the military begins to pressure him to resign. Facing increasing pressure, Frondizi breaks relations with the Cuban government, and in March of that year, Peronists win majorities in the provinces. On March 29, Frondizi is arrested and replaced by José Maria Guido as president of the Senate. That night, Frondizi is detained and imprisoned on Isla Martin García. Guido follows the same path as previous presidents Hipólito and Juan Perón, signing a written pledge with the military that reaffirms the proscription of the Peronist party and also outlaws strikes and unions. The military's desire for Frondizi to resign quickly leads to a series of economic problems, and in September, a military coup attempt fails. This leads to a series of conflicts between the Nationalist officers and the pro-Peronist officers, culminating in the military's split into Blue and Brown factions. The Brown faction, wanting to avoid the return of Peronism, proposes the military's separation from politics. This leads to the Battle of Almirante Brown, in which the Brown faction is victorious and the Peronist Party
  • 00:15:00 In 1962, President Guido Franceschi supported the Coloradoans, but two days later, in front of the Argentine Blue Army's numerical superiority, he changed his mind. Finally, on September 22, 1962, the Blue Army captured the Coloradoan capital, Santa Fe. President Guido then appointed General Juan Carlos Ongania commander in chief of the Argentine Army. The quick reaction of Guido to the conflict between Blue and Coloradoans achieved a period of peace that lasted a few months until an international crisis re-activated the conflict between the two factions. In October 1962, President John F. Kennedy denounced the Soviet Union's attempt to install missiles on Cuban soil and immediately declared a naval blockade. The Argentine government was one of the first to support the initiative and sent two destroyers to the Cuban war zone. At the same time, the head of the Argentine Air Force personally committed to participate in the blockade. This gesture generated a considerable dissatisfaction within the government and led to the demand for the resignation of the head of the Air Force. The resignation of the head of the Air Force leads to the overthrow of the president of the Argentine Army. This event creates a great bitterness among the Colorados (Blues) within the government, who demand his dismissal.
  • 00:20:00 In 1963, elections held to determine the future of Peronism in Argentina resulted in a victory for the government of General Juan Perón, who sought to extinguish Perónism completely. For the Peronist party, the election was a test of its ability to survive against the Peronist faction that puts its survival at risk. Several Peronist leaders attempt to bypass Perón's authority and impose their own candidates, but when their leadership is questioned, they back down and allow the candidacy of President Vicente Solano Lima. The government, supported by the 1955 law preventing opposition parties from participating, forbids Lima's UCR party from fielding candidates, and Lima calls on his followers to vote for "none of the above" (NOO). On Election Day, the Peronist candidates run against one another, with Arturo Illia, from the Radical Party, winning by a narrow margin. Illia's victory shows that a Peronist government is possible, and he begins to take a more active role in government policies. However, his policies clash with those of the business community and the military, and his relationship with Perón deteriorates progressively. In 1965, the government of Libya calls elections to allow the Peronist party to field its own
  • 00:25:00 This video covers the events leading up to the military coup that installed General Juan Carlos Onganía as president of Argentina in June 1966. The video discusses the various factions within the Argentine military and the power struggle between the government and the military. The crisis finally culminated in Onganía's assumption of the presidency, which met with little Resistance from the population.

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