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The video discusses the hydrosfera, or the outer layer of the Earth that consists of water. It explains that water is essential for life and that it can be found in three states: liquid, solid, and gas. The video goes on to discuss the different types of water bodies and their respective movements.

  • 00:00:00 The water that exists on Earth as oceans, seas, glaciers, rivers, lakes, and ponds, collectively known as the "hydrosfera," constitutes the planet's outer layer, called the "hydrosphere." This word comes from the Greek word "hidros," meaning "water," and the Latin word "spire," meaning "sphere." The hydrosphere consists of a source of life, as water is an essential element for the survival of living organisms. Organisms present a high water content, for example, a human body can contain up to 75% water. The water bodies occupying three fourths of the Earth's surface are called "lakes." The remaining one fourth belongs to continents and islands. The water in the hydrosphere is in three states in liquid form, corresponding to oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes. In solid form, it corresponds to polar ice caps and glaciers. In gas form, it is found in the atmosphere as vapor. Water can be classified according to its origin and movement: oceanic: these are vast bodies of water that separate continents, and consist of salty oceans close to continents and lesser depths than oceans. There are five oceanic seas: the Atlantic, Pacific,
  • 00:05:00 The oceans and seas have a temperature of about 4 degrees Celsius on average, and their temperature can vary depending on their location. For example, in the tropics, the temperature of the ocean can range from 26 to 30 degrees Celsius. Oceans have three major movements: the wave, the current, and the tide. The wave is the movement of the water caused by the wind. The current is the movement of the water caused by the flow of water. The tide is the rise and fall of the water level due to the force of the moon and the sun. Rivers move water inland in oceans. These movements are similar to a waterfall. The river can have a high or low flow, depending on the slope of the land it flows through. It can carry water from the river's source to where the land is less inclined, forming a narrow valley. The river's middle flow is the part where the river slows down because the land is less inclined. It also carries the most water because of the inflows from its tributaries. The river's lower flow is the final part of the river, where the slope is low and the river has many meanders. The river's mouth is divided into high and low flows, which are

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