Summary of Historia Del Arte Universal Cap 03 Extremo Oriente, Arte en Asia

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This video discusses the history and art of Asia, with a focus on the Buddhist religion and its influence on the region's architecture and art. The video also covers the rise and fall of various dynasties in Asia, and the construction of the Great Wall of China.

  • 00:00:00 The history of art would not be truly universal if it did not include the incredible episode of Indian China and Japan, but it doesn't just include the artistic manifestations of these three ancient civilizations, but also all the surrounding cultures that make up a constellation of satellites. From Afghanistan to Cambodia, from Taiwan to Thailand, and all the way south to Indonesia, there is a common denominator in the awakening of art in Asia: Buddhism. Originally originating in India, the religion spread eastward following the Buddhist pilgrimages, and the famous silk trade route was a major factor in facilitating cultural and artistic exchanges between the east and west. While the "I" in "the self does not exclude the importance of other religions," such as Brahmanism, where the god of creation and destruction is represented by four arms characteristic of the dance, this is clearly a sacred landscape where one senses the peace of Buddhism. Its spiritual reach is difficult to encapsulate in words or images, and examples of the stupa, the Budist religion's primary architectural form, can be found throughout Asia, from China to Japan and beyond. In terms of architecture, the east Asian landscape is marked by striking, varied forms that oscillate between traditional and modern forms, with some reaching
  • 00:05:00 The history of art begins in India in the 3rd century before Christ, with the dynasty of the Mauryas. Asoka, the emperor of this dynasty, promoted Buddhism and this religion's representation in art began to take shape during his rule. Important points to note during this time period are the art of the stupa, which predates Buddhist art by centuries, and the first Buddhist art, which was produced under the Mauryas. Later, under the Sunga and Andhra Dynasties, the construction of the Buddhist vihara, or "stupa-chamber," was finalized. This type of monument, which is recognizable with its semierect, heaven-like shape, can be attributed to Ashoka, the emperor of the dynasty. The stupa-chamber is always surrounded by a stone or medicinal enclosure, and it has four entrances monumentalized in curves or an antechamber situated on the four cardinal points. This architectural plan defines the cosmos for Buddhist artists. The entrances of the vihara are often decorated with interesting religious reliefs depicting themes from Buddhist mythology.
  • 00:10:00 India's art history is explored in this video, which begins with a meditation where the intention is to avoid physical presence of Buddha, but does not include episodes from his rich geography. In the Great Eruption of Sanchi, sculptures are collected among others from the sermon to animals. The Buddhist dynasty of the Goutam era, spanning 320-575 AD, experienced a new impetus when it was exceptional among temples and monasterios in the whole of India. This is the emergence of the Buddhist Tihara (Chai) style, which is exceptional in the context of temples and monasterios throughout the continent. Architecture in India took some time to become a true construction process, reducing itself to copying over the living rock of ancient structures in wood. This type of architecture is called Ratna Vale Pura (Pure Stone Temple), and is typically temporary, with these types of structures being mostly in stone and often ephemeral. This type of architecture is the Ratna Valleys of Maharashtra, which feature original architectural solutions reminiscent of earlier and lost models executed in wood. Near Ajam is found the Ior, a place of high religious significance that has important architectural testimonies from the time of Krishna, the first in among India's great religious figures in
  • 00:15:00 The video discusses the history and architecture of the Buddhist art in the extreme east, Asia. The art was very early and left a long, uninterrupted legacy in the distant lands of Nepal, Burma, Vietnam, Thailand, and Java. The famous Buddhist temple of Borobudur is composed of a pyramid-shaped base and a large stupa, accompanied by 72 smaller stupas. All the reliefs on the walls and ceilings of this exceptional monument are dedicated to the figure of Buddha. Buddhist art was very popular in Japan and left a long, lasting legacy. However, without official support from the Buddhist religion, it would have been difficult to maintain this art. The emperor Sōmu (r. 684-705) was determined to build the largest Buddhist temple in the world, and in 700, he commissioned the construction of the Tōdai-ji monastery in Nara. This immense wooden building, with a height of over 30 meters, is an outstanding example of Japanese temple architecture. The video then discusses the history of Japanese religious architecture, highlighting the influence of Zen Buddhism. Many of these gardens date from the 15th century and have been periodically renovated over the years. Despite their age, they still retain their impe
  • 00:20:00 The art of Japan is evident in its structures, which complete an impressive architectural image of fresh and revitalized modernity. Globalized rhetoric of the 21st century has captured the most sensitive details of Japanese soul in painting, but especially in the print medium with architecture and garden. This people's contribution to the history of universal art is notable. The first Japanese painting was of religious nature, inspired by the infinite universe that would be stereotyped in mandalas of a very graphic way. Between the oldest paintings are found both murals damaged in the late sixth century at Oriol Temple in Ibaraki Prefecture, and miniatures on paper that illustrate the other causes and effects. Between the tenth and 12th centuries, painting developed independently of text, becoming a major art with the arrival of the "new" style called "LLAMA TOE." Nothing escaped the eyes of painters, from the grave portrait of a courtier of the late Minamoto period, painted on silk with ink by Fujiwara no Noriyori, to poetic landscapes painted on paper in the second half of the 12th century, for example, by Takanobu. The birth of painting in Japan is marked by the abandonment of the court, the retreat of the monks
  • 00:25:00 This video provides a history of the art of the universal world, from the East to Asia. The video covers the rise and fall of dynasties in the East, and the construction of the Great Wall of China. The video also discusses the Buddhist religion, which flourished in China during this time.
  • 00:30:00 This video discusses the art of China, focusing on the use of more subtle mediums such as paint and color that lead to a universe of religious, poetic meaning without comparison in Western art. The world of art decorative China reaches the level of great art, without excluding the large sculpture that was discovered later, archaeologically, at the Warriors' Tombs of Xian. This group of warriors, which fills the tombs that precede burial sites, is so lifelike that it requires mention in the history of art. There is nothing similar in all of history's universal art. Painting is where Chinese aesthetics most deeply influences the material, with the accompanying texts and handwriting contributing significantly. But painting also becomes independent of any explicit message for the purpose of purely decorative effect. Painting is pure expressive expression, based on cromatic abstraction on paper or silk. In addition, Chinese experience and imagination with nature is expressed in an original way through unique experiences of landscape and constructed, where different levels and depths of the painter's gaze are distant from rationalized and geometric perspective, seen in Western painting. The spectator is overwhelmed by that form of imagining landscape and begins to think in terms of his own existence, gradually understanding the relationship between man and nature that sums up a
  • 00:35:00 This video discusses the historical art of the universal table, which uses a metal rod heated to a high temperature to bend into desired shape. The process is repeated with the other end of the rod to create a symmetrical piece. Once the intermediate section is shaped, the hot metal is allowed to cool, becoming obedient again. The smaller adornments and claspers are then added, and the overall frame is assembled with a hot red-hot iron. The frame is then folded and hammered to achieve the desired shape. The final product is a beautiful Renaissance-era Gothic gate.
  • 00:40:00 The video discusses the art of metalworking, and how traditional tools have been replaced by more powerful tools that allow a craftsman to work with less effort, for example, a metal plow. It also discusses the use of autogenous welding in more diverse pieces of metalwork, exceeding the boundaries of traditional welding.

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