Summary of Neurociencias, Ciencias del Comportamiento y Ciencias Sociales | #UNIRinvestiga

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00:00:00 - 01:00:00

The video explores the potential of neuroscience research in understanding the brain and behavior. It covers topics such as the brain's ability to create reality through perception, the importance of dendritic spines for communication between neurons, the use of technology for human enhancement and neuromodulation, and the impact of emotions on decision-making. The video also discusses the deep dive into the topic of free will, an ongoing debate within the neuroscience community, with significant implications for the law and justice system. In conclusion, the video invites further discussion on the topic of free will in the next section.

  • 00:00:00 In this section, the speaker introduces a conference focused on neurosciences, one of the areas of research that the university excels in due to its potential for multidisciplinarity. Javier Cudeiro, a renowned neuroscientist with an impressive career both in Spain and worldwide, delivers a talk on the impact of neurosciences in research and how a better understanding of the functioning of the nervous system can help in the treatment of diseases. The conference aims to provide useful insights for the university's research groups, attendees, and external participants interested in the applications and potential of this area of knowledge.
  • 00:05:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the importance of understanding how the brain creates reality through perception, which is an active creation of the brain rather than a direct translation of sensory information. He provides examples of how our brain's context and surroundings influence our understanding of the world, such as the perception of the color of an object depending on the objects around it. The speaker also talks about the incredible capabilities of the brain, such as how we can perceive a Dalmatian from just a few random blotches, and how our brain's neural networks can create new connections to facilitate perceptual learning. Finally, he emphasizes the impact of neuroscience in the late 20th century, which helped improve imaging and diagnostic techniques that have saved many lives.
  • 00:10:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the use of the term "neuro" in various fields, such as neuroeconomics and neuroeducation. While some believe that adding "neuro" reinforces the potency of these disciplines, the speaker argues that they have enough power on their own. The idea of using the brain to predict the future is also discussed, with the speaker explaining that the brain uses sensory information to predict what will happen next, which helps with survival. The video explores how the field of neuroscience has progressed, from observing the brain at a macro level to examining individual neurons, such as those studied by the Nobel Prize-winning scientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal.
  • 00:15:00 In this section of the video, the speaker discusses the importance of understanding dendritic spines in order to understand how neurons communicate with each other. Various disorders such as Down Syndrome and Autism are linked to abnormal dendritic spines. The speaker also explains that the brain has an incredible number of neurons and connections between them, making it difficult to fully understand how the brain processes information. However, advances in imaging techniques such as transparent brain samples and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging have allowed for better visualization and understanding of the brain's structure and pathology.
  • 00:20:00 In this section, the speaker discusses different techniques used in neuroscience, such as neurophysiology and optogenetics. They explain how neurons behave electrically and how we can use electrodes to measure electrical activity in neurons to understand how they communicate with each other. Optogenetics is also discussed as a powerful technique that can modify the activity of certain neuronal groups using light. The speaker predicts that the persons who worked on this technique will win a future prize, due to its importance for neuroscience research. They provide an example of a mouse with an implant that can control its movement by activating specific neurons with light.
  • 00:25:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the potential for neuroscientific research to provide solutions for various neurological and psychiatric diseases. The brain is capable of incredible things, but when it falls ill, it can cause immense suffering and often requires a significant financial investment for treatment. By implanting fibers or electrodes in different parts of the brain, researchers are exploring ways to cure or alleviate symptoms of various diseases, such as Parkinson's, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Furthermore, for patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa, a degenerative disease that often leads to blindness, implanting electrodes on the retina has shown promising results to restore some degree of vision.
  • 00:30:00 In this section, the video discusses the use of technology to improve the capabilities of the human body, such as through prosthetics and implants in the brain. For example, there are implants placed in the retina and even in the visual cortex that allow people to see even if they have vision problems. In addition, there are implants that can detect brain activity and translate it into movements of external devices, such as a robotic arm or even a computer cursor for communication. While there are still limitations to these technologies, they have great potential for improving the lives of people with various disabilities.
  • 00:35:00 In this section, the speaker discusses non-invasive techniques for neuromodulation, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which uses magnetic fields to stimulate specific areas of the brain. By stimulating or suppressing activity in certain regions of the brain, TMS has shown great potential in treating conditions such as epilepsy and depression. The speaker notes that TMS may also be used in the future for neuroenhancement, a topic with ethical implications. Additionally, the creation of lab-grown "mini-brains" using pluripotent cells from adult organisms offers the potential for studying brain development and related pathologies without using embryos.
  • 00:40:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the interesting ways in which neuroscience is expanding our understanding of the brain and behavior. He describes experiments where certain treatments have allowed the brain to create new organs, such as eyes, and how advancements in brain imaging technologies have allowed us to study areas of the brain that were once only the realm of poets and philosophers. Furthermore, he talks about the role of gut bacteria in influencing behavior and various pathologies and how experiments can help us understand the neural underpinnings of experiences such as art aesthetics and religious and mystical experiences. The speaker also discusses the subjectivity of our perceptions, citing a study where people were tested on their aesthetic preferences for paintings, and how brain imaging has allowed us to study phenomena like romantic love.
  • 00:45:00 In this section, the video explores the possibility of inducing a mystical experience through meditation and stimulation of particular brain regions, as well as the impact of emotions on decision-making. Research has shown that individuals from different religions, including Buddhists and Carmelite nuns, report similar brain activity in regions associated with mystical experiences during meditation. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that even self-proclaimed atheists can experience a mystical encounter when the same brain regions are stimulated through transcranial magnetic stimulation. The video also stresses the crucial role emotions play in making decisions, affecting not only everyday choices but also the stock market and even the law. Experts argue that decision-making in uncertainty involves more than rational thought and point to the significant emotional component of the brain that influences our choices.
  • 00:50:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the role of the nucleus accumbens, which is a part of the brain's pleasure and reward circuit. When a person experiences something pleasurable, such as sexual activity or winning a large sum of money, the release of dopamine in this area of the brain creates a feeling of happiness and tranquility. On the other hand, when an individual is faced with the possibility of losing something, the nucleus accumbens is less activated. The speaker also shows examples of experiments conducted on rats that demonstrate the addictive behavior triggered by the anticipation of a reward, rather than the reward itself. This addiction is similar to that seen in individuals who become addicted to drugs that produce immediate feelings of pleasure.
  • 00:55:00 In this section, the video discusses the topic of free will, which is hotly debated in neuroscience and has significant implications for law and justice. While some theories suggest that we are capable of making conscious, free decisions, others argue that our unconscious brain functions in a way that ultimately determines our decisions. The video mentions an experiment conducted by psychologist Benjamin Libet in which a subject is asked to decide when to stop the hand of a clock, and activity in the brain is recorded before the decision is consciously made. The implications for this debate in the field of law are significant, as it raises questions about the validity and determination of decisions made by individuals. The video concludes by inviting questions for a more elaborate and detailed discussion of the topic in the next section of the video.

01:00:00 - 02:00:00

The video explores various topics related to neuroscience and its implications, including education, determinism versus free will, brain enhancement, ethics, and treatments for cognitive and behavioral disorders. The experts highlight the importance of education in neuroscience and stress the need for proper training and informed consent for individuals who participate in studies. They also emphasize the ethical concerns surrounding the usage of neuro-enhancement techniques and the need for regulation and legislation. Additionally, the experts discuss the potential impact of technology on cognitive function and the need for greater public awareness of the contributions of neuroscience to daily life. The video concludes with discussions on treatments such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and optogenetics for various disorders, including addiction and schizophrenia.

  • 01:00:00 In this section, the focus is on creating a space for debate and discussing questions sent in by attendees, particularly those related to ethics and the potential creation of a neuro-educator profession in Spain. While the speaker is unsure about the latter, they do emphasize the importance of providing education to teachers on how neuroscience can contribute to education. The speaker mentions that they themselves have worked with teachers, sharing strategies and knowledge from neuroscience about memory, attention, emotions, and more.
  • 01:05:00 In this section, the importance of education in neuroscience is discussed as a way to offer seminars, workshops, and masterclasses to educate people on the benefits of this field of study. The topic of education bilingue and its relationship with neuroscience is also touched on, with emphasis on the need for proper instruction by native teachers to guarantee its effectiveness. Additionally, the connection between mathematics and neuroscience is explored as inseparable, with mathematic tools being essential for modeling in neuroscience, and the need for advanced mathematical skills increasing in the field. Finally, the importance of understanding programming and statistics is emphasized for anyone pursuing a career in neuroscience.
  • 01:10:00 In this section, the discussion revolves around the determinism versus free will debate and the use of mathematics to explore consciousness. The speaker mentions the importance of new models and experiments to shed light on this topic. However, the conversation shifts to the ethical limits of using neurosciences in research, particularly in terms of using animals or incorporating neuroenhancement techniques. The speaker emphasizes the need for ethical committees to regulate these practices and ensure that they are used for fundamental knowledge rather than direct application. The discussion highlights the complexity of ethical issues in neuroscience research and the need for ongoing dialogue and regulation to ensure responsible scientific practices.
  • 01:15:00 In this section, the ethical concerns surrounding the brain enhancement through neuroscience techniques are discussed. While some argue that the utilization of neuroscience can lead to positive outcomes, such as aiding soldiers or enhancing athletic performance, others fear that it can create a social divide between those who can afford the latest neuro-enhancement techniques and those who cannot. The use of neuro-enhancement in athletes, gamers, and military personnel is a growing concern that is not yet regulated by a governing body. Overall, it is important to consider the ethical implications of using neuroscience to enhance human performance and to legislate this field accordingly. The author argues that the technology is not inherently bad or good; rather, it is the way in which it is used that determines its morality.
  • 01:20:00 In this section, the speakers discuss the importance of informed consent and the need for proper training and education of individuals who participate in research studies. They bring attention to the fact that consent forms should be adapted to fit all the implications of a study and that different protocols are needed for experiments that involve implanting electrodes or recording personal information of the subject. Additionally, the speakers emphasize the need for multidisciplinary teams and expert advice when evaluating the ethical implications of a study, especially for experiments in the field of marketing, neuromarketing, and biomedicine. They suggest that proper training and education are necessary for individuals who participate in studies to fully understand the protocols, benefits, and potential risks.
  • 01:25:00 In this section, the experts discuss the role of ethics committees in research and the importance of gaining approval before conducting studies, even if the researchers believe there are no side effects. They also mention the importance of having a diverse committee with members from various fields to provide different perspectives. Additionally, they touch on the impact of technology on cognitive function and how advancements have continuously shaped the human brain's functioning throughout history. They note that the brain has the capacity to adapt to new technology, but it can also lead to more individualistic behaviors and less social interactions.
  • 01:30:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the changes in the brain that have been observed due to technological advancements and changes in the way people learn. For example, the development of technology has led to a decrease in attention span and a shift to a more fragmented way of learning. However, there have also been some positive changes, such as increased cognitive flexibility and the ability to quickly switch between tasks. Despite these changes, the speaker notes that the use of technology and the way it is incorporated into pedagogy can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of learning.
  • 01:35:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the importance of handwriting and its connection to the brain's motor skills and learning abilities. The speaker mentions the controversy regarding the elimination of handwriting in teaching practices, citing the detrimental effects of solely relying on typing over fine motor movement development. The overall impact of neuroscience on society is also discussed, with emphasis on the need for greater education and awareness of the field's contributions to daily life. The speaker recognizes the importance of scientific communication and the need for more outreach initiatives to promote greater public interest and understanding.
  • 01:40:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the importance of incorporating the knowledge of neuroscience in diverse disciplines like social work and law. He proposes that there should be some form of intervention in schools or universities to introduce these concepts. The speaker also mentions a neuro-education master's program as a possible solution. Furthermore, the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of mental illnesses is discussed, where it is explained that the therapy has been approved to treat depression and some types of psychosis, but its effectiveness in treating psychotic dementia is not as high. The speaker suggests that this may be due to the protocol or target areas used in the therapy needing further research.
  • 01:45:00 In this section, the researchers discuss the use of the multi-site circulation protocol in improving cognitive parameters such as memory, verbal fluency, and mood in dementia patients. While the results are promising, the protocol is still undergoing testing and hasn't been approved by the SDA due to its variability. The researchers also touch on how transcranial magnetic stimulation can be effective in treating depression that is resistant to medication, but that patients require long-term treatment and occasional booster doses to maintain the positive effects. Overall, the discussion highlights the potential of neuroscientific research in treating a range of cognitive and behavioral disorders.
  • 01:50:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for the treatment of symptoms of schizophrenia, such as negative symptoms or hallucinations. TMS has shown promising results in improving these symptoms, particularly through high-frequency stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or through a newer protocol that targets the cerebellum. However, TMS is not a first-line treatment and is typically used for patients who are resistant to medication or psychotherapy. The speaker also mentions the use of TMS for the treatment of addiction, particularly drug addiction, but does not delve further into the topic.
  • 01:55:00 In this section, the focus is on the use of optogenetics and transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat addiction. It is mentioned that optogenetics experiments with rats have been performed to stimulate the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with light, which has shown improvement in addiction behavior. Similarly, transcranial magnetic stimulation has been applied to the prefrontal cortex in the case of human cocaine addicts and can be used to treat other addictions. However, the treatment is only effective when used in conjunction with cognitive therapy, as patients still need external support to control their addiction without relapsing. Lastly, while a viewer question asks about the impact of neuroscience on applied mathematics within the business field, the panelists argue that mathematics and informatics are intertwined with neuroscience research and find practical applications such as improving banking transactions or stock market analysis.

02:00:00 - 02:35:00

The video discusses various topics related to neuroscience, behavior, and social sciences. Applied mathematics plays a crucial role in disciplines such as neuroscience and marketing, where mathematical models can predict things like stent size and influence purchasing decisions based on emotional reactions. The impact of mirror neurons is also highlighted, with applications in areas such as empathy, imitation, and language learning. The use of drugs for cognitive enhancement, neurostimulation, and neuromodulation is explored, along with their potential risks and ethical implications. The influence of emotions and biased information on political decision-making is discussed, along with the importance of scientific literacy and training for science journalists, while outlining the future of neuroscience and its ethical concerns.

  • 02:00:00 In this section, the interviewee discusses the important role of applied mathematics in various disciplines, including neuroscience and marketing. In the case of neuroscience, mathematical models can be used to predict things like the size of a stent needed to open an artery, and applied mathematics can also be valuable in the marketing industry where neuromarketing techniques take advantage of people's emotional responses to influence their purchasing decisions. However, the interviewee raises concerns about the extent to which people can be manipulated by these techniques, emphasizing the strong emotional component of decision-making that is largely subconscious and outside of our control.
  • 02:05:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the concept of neurogastronomy, which explains how the brain affects our experiences with food and drinks. He shares examples of how presentation and language can influence our perception of taste and quality, such as serving a cheap wine in an expensive bottle. The topic of mirror neurons is also discussed, which are responsible for empathy and imitation. The speaker explains the history of mirror neurons and their connection to the marketing industry, in which they are used to influence behavior.
  • 02:10:00 In this section, the origins of mirror neurons, which replicate the movement of others and are essential for imitation, empathy, and language learning, are discussed. A story is recounted about a lab in Italy where a monkey's neurons were observed while performing a task. When the monkey was not being attentive, the neurons did not activate, but when the monkey was given a piece of food by the observer, the neurons rapidly fired. Mirror neurons are believed to contribute to imitation learning, as children tend to replicate the movements of other children they see, even if they are beyond their ability level, such as acrobatics. It is also suggested that mirror neurons could have an impact on empathy and that they are the explanation for why children can absorb their parents' mannerisms, gestures, and tics. Furthermore, mirror neurons are shown to play a role in language learning since they help to understand others. Finally, the importance of incorporating this knowledge into education is stressed, both in the home and at school.
  • 02:15:00 In this section, the speaker answers a question about the use of drugs in the advancement of cognitive processes and memory. The speaker explains that there is no specific drug that effectively enhances memory, but there are supplements and a balanced diet that may be somewhat beneficial. There are, however, drugs that are used in the treatment of dementia, such as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, which have been shown to improve cognitive function in the early stages of the disease. The speaker also mentions experimental drugs that act on certain parts of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, which regulates hunger. The speaker also touches on the topic of "neurodoping" and how it is not currently legislated against in sports, much like erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of red blood cells.
  • 02:20:00 In this section, the video discusses the use of neurostimulation, or stimulation of the brain using small devices that can be purchased and built at home. These devices have been shown to improve cognitive function in laboratory experiments, increasing the speed and effectiveness of tasks, but there are concerns about the long-term effects of their use and their ethical implications. There are also commercial devices that use direct current to stimulate the brain, but their regulation and use require caution and prudence to avoid potential harm. The development of reliable markers to detect the use of these devices in athletes is also a challenge that needs to be addressed.
  • 02:25:00 In this section, the lecturer explains the method of neuromodulation and how it is used in neurosciences to stimulate certain areas of the brain. Neuromodulation involves connecting a cable to an electrode soaked in saline and placing it on a specific part of the brain, such as the prefrontal cortex, to stimulate the neurons in that area. Companies have used this method for neuromarketing and have created commercial products that claim to enhance brain function, but it must be used with caution as it can also have negative effects such as skin burns and psychotic episodes. The lecturer also talks about the use of neuromodulation in combination with inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase for the treatment of dementia, which has shown some temporary improvements in cognitive functions. Lastly, they discuss the implications of neuro-politics on free will and decision making.
  • 02:30:00 In this section, the speakers discuss the impact of emotions and biased information on political decision-making. They point out that people can be easily manipulated through emotional appeals and biased information, even if the information is not false. The confirmation bias also makes people more inclined to adopt ideas that reinforce their existing beliefs. The speakers note that this phenomenon is exploited by political campaigns, and cite examples of how supporters of Donald Trump defended his inauguration crowd size as being larger than Obama's, despite photo evidence to the contrary. The speakers also discuss the challenges of managing information overload and uncertainty during the pandemic, and point out the need for accurate information in managing anxiety and depression.
  • 02:35:00 In this section, the speakers discuss the importance of promoting scientific literacy and the need for science journalists to have specific training. They also note how difficult it can be to persuade someone who is deeply entrenched in their beliefs, regardless of scientific evidence to the contrary. They touch on the future of neuroscience, which includes developments in genetic research and technology, and the ethical concerns that come with it. The section ends with thanks to the speaker and attendees, and a hope for future sessions.

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