Summary of Variabilidad genética

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This video discusses how genetic variation can be generated by mechanisms such as recombination, segregation, and mutation. It also briefly explains how transposon transfer can lead to the creation of new alleles. These mechanisms are important for the process of evolution.

  • 00:00:00 This video discusses various mechanisms of genetic variability, focusing on the process of segregation. Segregation occurs during the formation of gametes in organisms like humans, and can result in the inheritance of different combinations of genes. There are three major mechanisms of genetic variability: recombination, segregation, and mutation. Recombination is a process that occurs during meiosis, when the chromosomes of two organisms are randomly paired. Segregation occurs during the formation of gametes, and allows for the generation of new combinations of genes. Mutation is a process by which the genetic information in a cell is changed. Recombination and segregation are two mechanisms that are often used to generate new combinations of genes. The third mechanism of variability, mutation, is a change in the genetic information in a cell that can result in the creation of new alleles. These three mechanisms of variability are important for the process of evolution.
  • 00:05:00 The video discusses how genetic variation is affected by various mechanisms, including the process of transposon transfer. Transposons are pieces of DNA that can jump from one location to another within the genome, and one important feature of transposon transfer is that it occurs between fragments of DNA that lack homology. Transposons can also be simple or replicate-transferred, with transport occurring between either free or joined fragments. Once transport is recognized, the palindromic sequence of about 25 to 100 pairs of bases is paired together and a transpuso protein is formed, usually referred to as a transpusome. This complex cuts and links the transport-transfer ends, freeing the free ends or leaving them joined. Transposons can break free from the genome's DNA strand, either through transport-mediated detachment of a single fragment or by enzymatic action on free ends. Once detached, transposons are moved to a new molecule or segment of DNA by translocation, and this is the region in which the transposon-binding protein, or transpusome, begins to bind. The transposon is then linked to the new location and sites with vacant DNA are filled in by the various repair enzymes involved in genome maintenance.

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