Summary of Natgeo Mas alla del Cosmos 02 Un Salto Cuántico

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The video discusses the strange phenomenon of quantum entanglement, in which particles can remain connected even if they are sent in opposite directions. This is explained by the particle's spin, which is like a person's fingerprints, being either blurry or definite, depending on how it is measured. If two particles are entangled, then whenever one of them is found in red, the other is guaranteed to be in blue, and vice versa.

  • 00:00:00 The video discusses a phenomenon called quantum entanglement, which is the phenomenon in which two particles (usually electrons) are linked so that their states are indeterminate until they are measured as a unit. This video explains how this phenomenon can be used to explain some strange light phenomena.
  • 00:05:00 In the 1920s, physicist Albert Einstein was skeptical of new ideas in physics, like the theory of the quantum. However, one of his most famous discoveries, the quantum leap, was actually based on a strange, unexpected property of electrons. Einstein's theory of the quantum states that electrons can only exist in certain discrete, specific orbits, and when they jump from one orbit to another, they emit energy in specific colors and lengths of light. This was incredibly surprising and mysterious, as it defied the laws of classical physics. Soon, experimental evidence began to accumulate that vor's theory was correct, and that electrons do indeed follow unique rules that differ from those of planets or balls on a ping pong table. In a famous experiment called the double-rendezvous, Einstein and his colleagues were suddenly confronted with one of the most fundamental laws of physics, which had been accepted without question for centuries. This experiment showed that even in the 1920s, the theory of the quantum was still evolving, and was leading to radical new insights into the nature of reality.
  • 00:10:00 In this video, scientists explain how waves in the cosmos are similar to waves on the ocean. They say that, just like on the ocean, when an electron moves through a double slit, it will be split in two. Then, each part of the split electron wave will travel in different directions, and will eventually intersect and merge with other parts of the wave. This process of wave merging and splitting is what creates patterns in the interference field, also known as a wave pattern. Max Born, a physicist, came up with a new way of describing what an electron wave is. He called it an "ocean wave," and said that it is something very peculiar - an electron wave in motion that is not anything that has been found in physics before. This new way of describing electron waves has been proven to be correct, time and time again, by experiments. So far, casinos have been able to rely on probability to win in games of chance. For example, I might bet 20 dollars on the roulette table and predict that I have a 38 percent chance of winning the next round. But, the house always wins in the long run - even if I am right most of the time. This is because the house does not have to know
  • 00:15:00 The video shows an excellent demonstration of the quantum-mechanical principle of chance, in which the world is essentially a game of chance. All of the matter in the universe is composed of atoms and subatomic particles, which follow the laws of probability rather than certainty in their base. The nature of reality is described by a probabilistic theory intrinsic to its underlying probability. This is something many people would find difficult to accept, as Einstein said. Einstein could not accept that the fundamental nature of reality at its most fundamental level was determined by chance. He said, "God does not play dice." He was deeply discouraged by the probability of it all, and many other physicists were not as discouraged. They saw the mathematical power of the quantum mechanics as leading to astonishing predictions before being expected. Niels Bohr accepted that reality was intrinsically blurry, but Einstein did not. He thought the theory was incomplete and absurd, and the most ludicrous prediction of quantum mechanics is the entrelazamiento principle, which states that two particles can be entangled if they are nearby and have similar properties. Despite the arguments of Einstein, MSB Bohr remained firm when Einstein repeated that God does not play dice. He responded with, "Then goodbye
  • 00:20:00 The video discusses the strange quantum-mechanical phenomenon of entanglement, in which particles can remain connected even if they are sent in opposite directions. This is explained by the particle's spin, which is like a person's fingerprints, being either blurry or definite, depending on how it is measured. If two particles are entangled, then whenever one of them is found in red, the other is guaranteed to be in blue, and vice versa. However, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanicsstates that particles cannot be correlated even at a distance. This strange yet apparently true phenomenon is called a "fantasmagorical action at a distance." Einstein believed that this type of connection was too mysterious for reality to comply with, and that it required intervention from a higher power. However, Bob Wiener and his colleagues showed that this mysterious correlation can be explained by the theory of wave-particle duality, which states that particles are both waves and particles. This idea was first proposed by Einstein in 1935, but was rejected by him at the time. Today, it is considered the most accepted theory of quantum mechanics.
  • 00:25:00 In 1967, John Bell proved that the theory of quantum mechanics was incomplete, by finding a way to break the barrier between Einstein and Board. This experiment showed that the quantum world is real, and that particles are able to connect and affect each other instantly. This discovery completely overturned Einstein's beliefs and changed the course of his life.
  • 00:30:00 This video explains how quantum mechanics works and how it is impossible to understand or explain it. Some people might ask why scientists don't ask this question, but they should instead ask about how the world supposedly works according to quantum mechanics. If we accept that the world actually operates in this strange way, we could use the fantastical action at a distance to do something useful. For example, a dream has been to transport people and things from one place to another without crossing space. However, this has yet to be achieved through the conventional means of transportation. Anton Zeilinger is far away from transporting himself like any other human, but if he attempts to use the quantum entanglement to transport small particles, it functions as intended and begins generating a pair of entangled photons in the laboratory on La Palma. One photon is sent to Tenerife, 144 kilometers away, while the other is sent to the laboratory on La Palma. Then, Salinger includes a third photon, which he wants to transport, and makes it interact with the entanglement of the La Palma. The equipment will study the interaction between the quantum states of the two particles and this is the amazing part - it could be used to transport human beings. Welcome to the new York, I
  • 00:35:00 The video discusses the difference between a physical object and its information, which is described as being "much more flexible" than a bit in a conventional computer. The video goes on to explain that this flexibility allows for "many things at the same time" in a way that a conventional computer could not. This technology, called "qubits," could have a huge impact on future technology, and is currently being explored by researchers.
  • 00:40:00 In this video, scientists discuss the theory of quantum mechanics and its implications for the world around us. According to quantum mechanics, the world is composed of objects that can exist in multiple states simultaneously, which allows for a computer to solve problems faster than a traditional computer. However, the theory still has many unanswered questions, and scientists are still trying to figure out what happens to all the strange phenomena at the level of atoms and particles. In either case, it seems that the barrier between the small and the large is breaking down, leading us closer and closer to understanding the universe as a whole.

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