Summary of Timothy Snyder: The Making of Modern Ukraine. Class 12. Habsburg Curiosity

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In this video, Timothy Snyder discusses the importance of the Habsburg dynasty in the development of modern Ukraine. He argues that the dynasty's interactions with other empires created a unique "friction zone" that affected the development of the Ukrainian nation. The video covers the dynasty's rise to power, their various conquests, and their eventual decline and downfall.

  • 00:00:00 The speaker discusses the importance of the Habsburg dynasty, which played a significant role in European history. He notes that while the dynasty is well-known in Western Ukraine, it is largely unknown in Eastern Ukraine, which is where Ukrainian culture and politics are centered. He argues that this is due to the dynasty's interactions with other empires, specifically the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Russian Empire, which created a unique "friction zone" that affected the development of the Ukrainian nation.
  • 00:05:00 In this video, Timothy Snyder discusses the importance of the Habsburg dynasty in Ukrainian history. He covers the dynasty's rise to power and their various conquests across Europe and the world. The dynasty's decline and eventual downfall are detailed in 1700, the year of the Treaty of Karlowitz, which marked the end of the Habsburgs' reign as a major European power.
  • 00:10:00 The Habsburg dynasty begins with the Habichtsburg Castle built in 1020, and goes all the way back to 988 when Kyivan Rus' was founded. The family makes their money from tolls and taxes, and one of their greatest warlords, Rudolf von Habsburg, is elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1273. Elections to the empire were closely associated with bouts of violence, and Rudolf eventually wins against a more impressive opponent, Otakar Premysl II. This victory sets the stage for Habsburg dominance over other European dynasties.
  • 00:15:00 The video discusses the history of elections in Ukraine, highlighting the importance of the 1346 election of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, which improved the process. The Habsburgs respond to this by inventing the Privilegium Maius, which makes elections easier for future generations. The Black Death, which began in 1347 and killed hundreds of thousands of people, was a spiritual crisis and an accompanying threat to the Catholic Church. On July 6, 1415, Jan Hus, a pre-Protestant theologian, was burned at the stake after a trial that he found unsatisfactory.
  • 00:20:00 The video discusses the origins of the Habsburg dynasty, which started with the Hussite rebellion and the marriage of Jan Hus to Elizabeth of Luxembourg. The video then focuses on the reigns of Albert IV and Matthias Corvinus, who were successful in driving the Habsburgs out of their Austrian lands. The video briefly discusses the marriages of Wladyslaw Jagiello and Maria Theresa, which solidified the dynasty's power.
  • 00:25:00 The Habsburgs are a dynasty of European nobles who became a major power in the late 16th century due to the advantageous marriages of their members. In 1700, they became a European power after their male line was extinguished. However, their reign was short-lived as they were eventually replaced by a female Habsburg in the 19 years following Maria Theresia's birth.
  • 00:30:00 The video discusses the history of Ukraine and the First Partition of Poland, which brought Galicia into the Habsburg monarchy. This event had a significant impact on the development of German-speaking Jews in Vienna.
  • 00:35:00 The video discusses the revolutions of 1848, which were a European-wide conflict that began in Belgium and spread to France, Austria, and other parts of the continent. The revolutions were a response to the oppressive rule of the Austrians by Emperor Franz Joseph. The main focus of the revolts was the establishment of separate Ukrainian and Polish states within Austria. The Austrian government was able to successfully negotiate a compromise with the Poles that granted them some autonomy. This process of negotiation and compromise would be a common theme throughout the history of Austria-Hungary.
  • 00:40:00 Ukraine's national identity and politics is complicated by its relationship to the Russian Empire, which changes after 1867 when Ukrainians are able to freely express themselves and organize politically. This coincides with the development of anthropology and ethnography as academic disciplines. Ukrainian populists go to the people and find that they are Ukrainian, which helps them oppose the Polish gentry.
  • 00:45:00 This video discusses the rise of Ukrainian nationalism and the importance of civic life in the early 20th century, which helped the country gain more control over its own politics.

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