Summary of Pesquisa como Resolução de Problemas (Módulo 2/20)

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The video emphasizes the importance of research as a problem-solving process and highlights the role of critical thinking, responsibility, and reproducibility in conducting research. It discusses various books and articles related to the process of research as problem-solving and emphasizes the need to question and refine research topics. The video also discusses the relevance of fake news and limited data plans for research and emphasizes the need to clearly define and analyze problems to make them interesting to a wider audience. The importance of evaluating the quality of solutions and considering various dimensions of effectiveness is also emphasized. The video culminates in a discussion about how problem-solving approaches can promote students' maturity and position them within existing literature.

  • 00:00:00 In this section, the speaker introduces Professor Roberto Pereira, who will be teaching the second module on research methodology in computer science. The speaker highlights Pereira's qualifications and research interests, particularly in the area of human-computer interaction. Pereira's role in the course is to challenge the students to think critically about their own research, encouraging them to explore, learn, and discover new things. The speaker also invites the audience to visit the journal Horizontes, which promotes critical debate about relevant topics in science and technology, including Pereira's work as an editor. Overall, the focus is on the action of research and the importance of exploring new ideas and approaches.
  • 00:05:00 In this section, the video emphasizes the importance of recognizing the small contributions made in research and how they contribute to the advancement of knowledge in a particular field. It stresses that the primary contribution of a research experience is the researcher themselves and the skills they develop, rather than just the final dissertation or thesis. The video also discusses the need for researchers to think critically and become problem solvers who are accountable, responsible, and can reproduce their work. The importance of developing a broader vision of what research means is also emphasized, along with the importance of becoming a better person to give back to society.
  • 00:10:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the three R's of responsible research: rigor, responsibility, and reproducibility. The responsibility aspect includes choosing a topic or problem to investigate, reporting findings, and considering ethics. Reproducibility involves not only reproducing results but also understanding why certain decisions were made during the research process. The speaker emphasizes the need for critical thinking in research and encourages note-taking as a way to stay organized and focused on the problem being investigated.
  • 00:15:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the books they recommend for understanding the process of research as problem-solving. They mention a philosophy of science book called "Progress and Its Problems," which proposes the concept of research as a problem-solving process. They also suggest "The Craft of Research," a book that helps structure research projects and "Research as a Problem-Solving Process," an article that exemplifies the concept of research as problem-solving in the context of human-computer interaction. The speaker emphasizes that research is an activity we engage in daily and should be approached with a sense of pleasure and discovery.
  • 00:20:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the problem of fake news and its prevalence in recent years, highlighting the various research opportunities that arise from this issue. Questions that can be investigated include definitions and classifications of fake news, identifying and separating real news from fake news, and understanding the factors that contribute to the spread of fake news. The speaker also emphasizes the impacts of fake news on society, including the movement against vaccines and denial of the COVID-19 pandemic, and how research in computing and technology can help mitigate these impacts.
  • 00:25:00 In this section, the speaker discusses how the issue of limited data plans for social media and messaging apps offered by telephone companies in Brazil can contribute to the dissemination of fake news, as users are unable to access different sources of information. The speaker suggests that this issue, along with others related to identifying fake news, can be objects of investigation, but the challenge lies in narrowing down the research topic from a broad area of interest. The speaker emphasizes the importance of maintaining an open mind as a researcher and focusing on producing quality work rather than trying to make the research the "work of your life."
  • 00:30:00 In this section, the importance of properly situating and questioning the research topic is emphasized. The authors suggest questioning the topic from various perspectives and analyzing it thoroughly before beginning the research. It is crucial to have a justification for the research, which includes the potential cost of not resolving the research problem and the benefits of finding a solution. The authors also suggest converting the research question into a research problem, which requires it to be of interest to a wider audience. They provide a basic structure for defining the research topic and question, including specifying the topic, stating the research question, and providing a brief justification. The process of questioning and refining the research topic is ongoing and will help to fine-tune the research scope and context.
  • 00:35:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the importance of clearly defining a problem in research and how it can make it interesting to a wider audience. The excerpt also touches on the idea of what constitutes good research in computer and software engineering and highlights the two fundamental concepts of progress and rationality in scientific progress. Additionally, the speaker examines the concept of how problems arise in a context and are only problems because someone identifies them as such, and the solutions produced by the researcher can change their understanding of the problem. The speaker concludes by criticizing the isolated treatment of progress and rationality in science and how they should be discussed in tandem.
  • 00:40:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the integration of progress and rationality in the context of research as problem-solving, which is necessary to advance our capacity to solve significant problems. They emphasize the importance of questioning whether theories and knowledge constitute an appropriate solution to significant problems, rather than being focused solely on confirming them. The division of research problems into empirical and conceptual types is also discussed, along with the addition of a third type: constructive problems. The construction of artifacts, such as systems and smartphones, can help us understand the process of problem-solving and generate new diagnostic insights.
  • 00:45:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the importance of understanding the nature of a problem when conducting research to find a solution. They note that this approach is independent of research paradigms, as it is important to know the problem you are trying to solve regardless of whether your research is empirical, conceptual, or constructive. The speaker suggests that understanding the nature of a problem can help researchers develop better solutions that are tailored to the specific problem they are trying to solve, and they provide an example of a solution that contributes to the problem of personalized communication interfaces. They note that it is also important to evaluate the quality of the solution, its effectiveness, and its cost-benefit ratio.
  • 00:50:00 In this section, the importance of analyzing a solution to a problem from different dimensions is emphasized. The speaker mentions the need to consider not just the transferability of the solution to similar problems but also its reliability and validity. They suggest that a solution must be evaluated in terms of its technical competence, effectiveness, and its ability to inspire trust in its users. The process of research also involves a continuous cycle of development and refinement. The speaker notes that while some may see problem-solving as a utilitarian approach, it is more about gaining clarity and advancing knowledge progressively. Ultimately, researchers must be able to articulate the problem that their research is addressing and how their solution is enhancing their ability to solve it.
  • 00:55:00 In this section of the video, Roberto and his colleague discuss how implementing research as a problem-solving approach can contribute to the development of students' maturity and their ability to position themselves within existing literature. This approach can help students question and discuss the methods they are applying to their research, ensuring coherence between their problem, solution, evaluation, and results. The group also discusses the role of funding agencies, specifically regarding the evaluation of postgraduate programs and the funding of research projects. Overall, this discussion highlights the importance of effective problem-solving approaches and funding agencies in promoting quality research.

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This video discusses how research can be used as a means of problem-solving to improve programs and regions with limited access to qualified labor. The speaker emphasizes the importance of scientific and practical problem-solving and notes that problems can be philosophical or scientific. Advancing scientific knowledge is not always necessary, and the speaker encourages further discussion on the topic.

  • 01:00:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the importance of using research as a means of problem-solving to improve programs and develop regions with less access to qualified labor. The focus is on scientific and practical problem-solving, which can be specific in terms of the object of research within a larger problem. The speaker also notes that problems can be philosophical or scientific, and that they do not necessarily need to involve advancing scientific knowledge. Finally, the speaker thanks the audience and encourages further conversation on the topic.

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