The ophthalmoscopia procedure is a type of eye exam that uses a direct view of the eye to see things such as blood vessels. The video explains how to perform the exam, including how to adjust the light intensity and focus. The exam is performed by first focusing on the papilla, and then looking at the vasculature in the nasal area. Next, the video looks at the arteries and veins in the four quadrants of the head, and also evaluates the retina and any hemorrhages or lesions. Finally, the video discusses farsightedness and myopia, and asks the patient to look directly at the light during the exam.