Summary of Clase 34 Fisiología Sanguínea - Inmunidad (Linfocitos T y B)

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This video discusses the immune system, focusing on immunity acquired through the formation of adaptive lymphocytes. It explains how the body's own cells develop immunity to specific pathogens, and how this immunity can be enhanced through exposure to specific antigens. Additionally, the video discusses the role of macrophages in the activation of lymphocytes, and how this process can help improve the body's immunity to infection.

  • 00:00:00 This video discusses the immune system, focusing on immunity acquired through the formation of adaptive lymphocytes, and immunity that is innate (specific to the individual). We also discuss the two types of immunity that an individual may have, adaptive immunity and acquired immunity. In adaptive immunity, the body's own cells develop immunity to specific pathogens. In acquired immunity, the body's cells are able to develop immunity to specific pathogens after being exposed to them. We will see examples of both types of immunity in this video, and talk about how these two types of immunity work together. We will also look at the different types of lymphocytes and how they are formed.
  • 00:05:00 In this video, the instructor discusses the immune system and how lymphocytes are created. Lymphocytes originate in the bone marrow, travel to the lymph nodes, and are processed to form activated lymphocytes. The defense cells in development rely on activated lymphocytes. Lymphocytes B are responsible for generating antibodies. In the intermediate life stage, processing takes place in the liver and at the end of life, in the marrow. The same lymphocytes, but with different specificity, are generated in the brain and in the spinal cord. Lymphocytes with a greater diversity produce many millions of different types of antibodies. When a target is to be developed, lymphocytes are sensitized to an antigen by exposure to a mild antigen. The lymphocytes reproduce and duplicate, forming lymphocytes sensitized to that antigen. Lymphocytes with specific antibody production are called clones of lymphocytes. These clones are specific to a type of antigen and are produced when lymphocytes are sensitized to that antigen. Lymphocytes b differentiate and proliferate to form lymphocytes with specific antibody production to an antigen specifically for this type of lymphocyte. The function of macrophages is mentioned in the video. Macrophages play a role in the activation of lymphocytes when a target is recognized.
  • 00:10:00 This video discusses how the immune system responds to an invader, such as a macrophage that has ingested a foreign antigen. The antigen is presented to specific lymphocytes, which create antibodies to the antigen. These antibodies can then bind to the invader and help destroy it. Additionally, macrophages secrete cytokines, which can help stimulate other lymphocytes to create stronger antibodies. Finally, a subset of lymphocytes, called "helper" lymphocytes, can help produce "killer" cells that can destroy the invader.
  • 00:15:00 This video discusses the immune system, specifically the role of the antibodies in protecting the body from infection. Gammaglobulins are the main type of antibody, and they are made up of two light and two heavy chains. Antibodies are produced in response to a specific antigen, and the secondary response is often better than the primary response. In this video, we discuss the different types of antibodies, and the importance of the system of complement.
  • 00:20:00 This video discusses the role of lymphocytes, specifically lymphocytes called T and B lymphocytes, in the immune system. Lymphocytes are special cells that help the body fight infections. Lymphocytes are also responsible for the body's immunity to self-toxins, such as bacteria and viruses. Lymphocytes have a special ability to neutralize viruses. The video then discusses the lymphocyte's migration and activation process. The system of complement, which is a series of proteins, also plays an important role in the activation of lymphocytes. The video also explains the role of mast cells and basophils in the activation process, and how they release histamine to increase blood flow. The video concludes by discussing the effects of lymphocyte activation on inflammation and blood clotting.
  • 00:25:00 A video discusses the importance of immunity, and how it can be improved through the use of antibodies and lymphocytes. The video also discusses how immunity can be weakened through the use of toxins, and how it can be enhanced through the use of antibodies and lymphocytes.

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