Summary of Ver la historia: 1966-1976. Tiempos violentos (capítulo 10) - Canal Encuentro HD

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The video discusses the different factions fighting for control in Argentina during the 1960s and 1970s, as well as the violence that ensued. Among the casualties of the violence were Rodolfo Teoría Peña, Rodolfo Peña, Silvio Frondizi, and José León Suárez. The video ends with the military dictatorship that took over in 1975.

  • 00:00:00 This chapter of our history covers a time of popular rebellion, which would mark a significant era in Argentine history and culminate in one of the country's darkest days of the 20th century. Under the control of the number of violent incidents, yet also of a great social hope for change, the liberation of society grows alongside the repression of the population. Citizens' faith in the northern forces grows along with their documentation. The extension of the documentations exposes the existence of the ex-pats, who put into evidence the fact that the southern government was aware of the events. We need to recapitulate the timeline, which spans from June 28th, 1966 to December 10th, 1976. On that date, the country woke up to a new coup d'état. The institutional crisis reached its climax with the separation of Dr. Arturo and the president's transitional role. The new dictatorship, dubbed the Argentine Revolution, seeks to stay in power for a long time. The presidency is held by Juan Carlos Onganía, a general of cavalry who is devoutly Catholic and opposed to leftist ideas. The government proposes to watch over the spiritual and moral values of Western and Christian civilization and to protect them through a tight security policy. The president Kennedy informs the Soviet
  • 00:05:00 In 1966, the government began to impose strict controls on universities, which gave young people more independence economically. This led to a youth-led world of their own, which differed radically from the moral and values established by the government. This made the young a dangerous social group for the eyes of the dictatorship, and onganía issued a decree ordering the national universities to be closed. The university community at the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) resisted the intervention and occupied several buildings. response from onganía arrives on the night of July 29, 1966, with a decree ordering the national economy be rationalized. Thousands of public sector employees were fired, rail lines were closed, and a large number of factories belonging to the state were dismantled. The most affected area was the province of Tucumán, where the sugar industry was completely restructured with the excuse of alleged modernization. This caused many sugar refineries to close, leaving a large part of the population of the province unemployed and poverty- stricken. Another social actor that plays a decisive role in this period is the labor union movement. In 1968, the General Confederation of Labor (CGT) splits into two factions: one led by Augusto Timoteo Vándor, a Per
  • 00:10:00 In 1966-1976, there were many violent times in different countries. In France, there were protests in May 1968 against the school system. The protests grew into a worldwide movement known as "May." In Mexico, in Tlatelolco, students were protesting government policies in 1968. The protests were violently suppressed, and ended in a massacre. In Czechoslovakia, in 1968, a movement demanding greater political openness began. Thousands of young people participated in protests against the war in Vietnam. In Argentina, in 1969, a labor union strike led to a national 24-hour strike. In Cordoba, the union's apuesta (gambit) doubled a 48-hour strike with a march. In 1969, there was also a student strike in Córdoba, Argentina. The city was under pressure from all sides. The strike and demonstrations did not stop. Thanks to Córdoba, the violence did not spread. That year, there was one of the most important labor strikes in Argentina. It started on May 29th and lasted for 48 hours. On that day, nearly 100,000 workers and students marched in the streets of Cordoba.
  • 00:15:00 In the early 1960s, large-scale protests took place in Argentina, 50 years after the country's first democratic elections. This video discusses events leading up to and during the Cordobazo, the largest of these protests, which occurred on May 29, 1969. The demonstrators, many of whom were labor union members, marched towards the center of the city in an effort to bring political change to Argentina. However, the military forces stationed there responded with violence, and the uprising quickly turned into a civil war. The video ends with the military's victory over the protesters on May 31, 1969. As a result of the Cordobazo, thousands were arrested and dozens died. However, the protests and the ensuing violence had a lasting impact on Argentinian society, paving the way for later democratic movements.
  • 00:20:00 After the Cordobazo, a period of violence begins which leads to the dictatorship of Onganía. Elpidio Torres, one of the most prominent victims of the dictatorship, is jointly convicted with Agustín Tozzo, all other seven trade unions that have been detained the same day. Agustín Tosto is sentenced to 8 years in prison, and the Cordobazo marks the beginning of a new era in which society recovers its fear of dictatorship and reclaims the streets. The great loser of the day is Onganía, which begins a downward spiral in power. Meanwhile, another figure who has been out of the country for 15 years begins to gain prominence in politics--Ernesto "Che" Guevara. The experience of the Cuban Revolution and the liberation struggles in Algeria inspire the creation of the first Argentine Marxist-Leninist organizations. In 1970, new sectors begin to join the Peronist movement, most notably young nationalists belonging to the Peronist Revolutionary Youth. There is no contact between the official government organization and the Montoneros organization, and General Roberto Marcelo Levingston, only a few days earlier, had overthrown President Arturo Frondizi. On May 29, 1970, a year after
  • 00:25:00 In 1966, General Juan Perón was elected president of Argentina. However, his delegate, personal representative, met with Ricardo Balbín, Perón's eternal opponent and leader of the Civic Radical Perón faction, to sign an agreement called "The People Speak," which spoke of income redistribution and economic protectionism. This agreement helped Perón's Justicialist Party win the 1971 elections. In July 1972, Lanusse announced his candidacy for president, but included a clause that prevented him from running as candidates of people who had been in Argentina for a long time. The intended recipient of this maneuver was General Perón, who had returned 17 years earlier. However, the citizens were not going to accept it. On August 15, 1972, news of a group of revolutionary militants' escape from Rawson Prison reached Argentina. A group of fugitives boarded a plane and flew to Chile, but another group was unable to reach the plane and gave up in place. However, the Revolutionary Youth still stays close to Perón and continues to support him even as he faces increasing pressure from the outside. In November 1972, Lanusse announced the election of Perón as president, but included a clause that prevented him from running as candidates of people who had
  • 00:30:00 On June 20, 1973, Perón returns to Argentina after 18 years in exile. He is met with celebrations and hostility from both the old guard and the new leftist revolutionaries, who fought against his return. Perón's victory in Chile in 1970 had opened up a new era of left-wing politics in Latin America, and Argentinian elections of that year were among the first to be free and fair in 22 years. Perón's Frente Cívico ( Civic Front) wins with 49.5% of the vote, and he is sworn in as President the following day. However, the old guard within Perón's own party soon begins to clashes with the new arrivals, led by Héctor José Cámpora. Perón's cabinet is a complex mix of old guard Peronists and representatives from many different factions of his movement.
  • 00:35:00 This anticipated return ends up revealing the deep differences that exist within the movement between those who dream of a socialist homeland and those who want Peronism's populist era to continue. In response, the popular celebration ends up becoming a massacre, with the right-wing Peronist forces making steady progress on the battlefields. The main issue in the struggle is which face the Peronist movement will have, but even as Perón lands in Argentina, the orthodoxy within the trade union movement quickly decides who should be the candidate for president--Perón's third wife, Maria Estela Martínez, better known as Isabelita. However, Perón quickly distances himself from the trend and begins to distance himself from those closest to him within the movement while the orthodox factions within the Peronist movement try to expel leftists from power. Governors, municipal officials, and youth leaders close to the Peronist movement are summoned to resign, and are replaced by conservative trade union leaders or close to the Minister of Labor, Jorge Rafael Videla.
  • 00:40:00 In this video, Isabel Perón is being sworn in as president of Argentina after the death of her husband, Juan Perón. The new president's first task is to try to unite the various factions of the Peronist party. However, differences between them quickly become apparent, and the situation rapidly deteriorates. On July 1, 1974, just days after taking office, Isabel Perón is killed in a plane crash. This moment marks the end of Perón's political legacy.
  • 00:45:00 In 1966-1976, Argentina was in the midst of a time of violence, with peronists, communists, and marxists all fighting for control. Among the 400 people killed as a result of the triple-A campaign against Montoneros, are Marxist political philosopher Rodolfo Teoría Peña, Peronist politician Rodolfo Peña, intellectual Marxist Silvio Frondizi, and surviving military execution of José León Suárez, Julio Tróxler. These are just a few of the many casualties of the violence. In February of 1975, shortly after the death of Perón, Isabel Perón signs a decree authorizing the military to eradicate the subversion in Tucumán. This begins Operation Independence, which allows the army to dismantle the Montoneros camps in the Tucuman mountain range. In September 1975, with the military implementing a model of illegal repression, the unions and leftist political organizations that had supported Perón turn against him. This leads to the July 1975 coup d'état that installs the country's first military dictatorship. Amidst the growing economic instability and inflation, Isabel Neves seeks new allies in February of 1976, signing a decree establishing the military's role in
  • 00:50:00 In 1966, the Argentine president, Lüder, appoints ítalo argentino senator José López Rega as his replacement. Meanwhile, on October 5th, during the height of the Montoneros' military campaign against the 29th Infantry Regiment in Formosa, 16 Montoneros soldiers are killed in combat. This military action results in strong social condemnation and serves as the justification for Rega to extend the independence campaign to the entire Argentine territory, via decree, a few days later. On March 23rd, 1976, during the night phase of the Montoneros' campaign against the presidential palace in Buenos Aires, President Maria Estela Martinez de Perón flies in a helicopter to the Olivos farm estate, ostensibly to attend a meeting, but with the pretext of a technical malfunction. The helicopter's trip ends abruptly at the airport, when Isabel, the last few meters of her constitutional government, walks down the runway. The country is now under the control of the national military junta, and the recommendations of the U.S. military security adviser are for all Argentines to be treated "according to the provisions and directives emanating from military authority." On May 1st, 1976, General Jorge Rafael Videla is appointed head of

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