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The 18th century was a time of great change in Spain, with the monarchy promoting modernization and reform while the Jesuits exerted a strong influence on culture. This video discusses these topics in detail, as well as the impact of the French Revolution on Spain.

  • 00:00:00 During the 18th century, Spain and its empire experience a progressive economic recovery that reaches its peak during the reign of Carlos III. The thinking illustrators, who originate in France in the late 17th century, develop in the 18th century with the aim of modernizing and improving society. This century is known as the "Age of Lights," when absolute faith is placed in the power of reason and seeks to eliminate all tradition superstition or conflicting ideas with the ideal of human progress. The metaphor of the lights is a metaphor coined by the self-same illustrators and is used to highlight the idea of a break in superiority of rejection of the past. The enlightened thinkers considered themselves heralds of the light of reason compared to the darkness of ignorance. The leading thinkers of the Age of Lights believe that mankind has reached the moment of exiting its minority age and of thinking for itself, due to its incapacity to do so caused by Church's negative influence throughout history. As a result, in this majority age, a new thinking prevails that has as its slogan " Serving thyself with understanding." Illustration is a very preoccupied movement with political and social ideas. Works by the three great French thinkers of the illumination,
  • 00:05:00 The video discusses the origins of the so-called "Illustrated despotism" in Spain during the 18th century. It describes the reign of Charles III (1759-1788), who is considered the most characteristic king of this period. His rule is characterized by a strong emphasis on reformatory policies, aimed at strengthening the power of the monarchy and undermining the interests of the aristocracy and the church. One of the king's main reformers, the Marqués de Esquilache, attempts to apply an old order to prevent crime among the embozados (a term for hooded criminals). This law provokes a popular uprising, supported by the nobility and the most reactionary sections of the court. Esquilache is forced to resign and flee Madrid, and Charles III returns to the throne a year later. The Jesuits, who had been both their confessor and their prophets, became increasingly unpopular during this period. This is due in part to their advocacy of reform, and to their influence over the collective conscience. However, some sectors of the government and the church also disliked them. Reforms in the judicial system and in agriculture and industry are promoted, as is education. Urbanization and improvements to roads
  • 00:10:00 This video discusses the efforts of the Spanish monarchy to promote modernization and economic growth while protecting the privileges of the nobility and the clergy. One of the most eminent Spanish illustrators of the 18th century, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, presents his report on the law of agriculture, which contains one of the most accurate diagnoses of Spain's economic problems ever written. Jovellanos also discusses the problems of social inequality and the plight of the rural poor. The reformist efforts of the monarchy and its friends in industry, commerce, agriculture, the arts, and sciences have great success almost immediately. Corporations similar to those in Spain and America are founded throughout the empire. The agricultural sector is one of the areas where the reformist will is most evident, as small, relatively wealthy farmers contribute to enrichening the country. One of its aspects is the policy of population colonization, which initiates the importation of new peoples from the interior of Spain to the Sierra Morena in order to establish a new center of administration. The war of the ears of jenkins turns England into Spain's main rival in America and kicks the Jesuits out of Paraguay. This leads to the expulsion of the Jesuits from many other countries. The video
  • 00:15:00 The video discusses the 18th century in Spain, specifically focusing on the influential Jesuits and their impact on Spanish culture. The video also covers the development of music in the 18th century and the various styles that were popular at the time. One of the most notable musicians of the 18th century was Luigi Boccherini, who combined popular styles with classical music. The quality of a guitar is not based on the amount of sound it emits, but rather on the expressive quality and dynamic range of the instrument. A good luthier must be both a good musician and a skilled craftsman.
  • 00:20:00 The Rococo style emerges in France in the mid-18th century and eventually makes its way to Spain. This art style is associated with the life of the upper classes, with particularly decorative art related to courtesan and ostentatious lifestyle. However, in central years of the 18th century, neoclassicism is the most popular art movement, serving the real interests of rationalism and balance against the fantastical and ecstatic baroque. Buildings and utilities are a major part of the moment, with, for example, the Royal Tobacco Factory in Sevilla. Real palaces are the greatest constructors and decorators of these years, with the Palace of La Granja (built for Philip V) and the Royal Palace of Madrid (both designed by the same architect, Felipe Guevara) both being built within a short space of time. The Palace of Madrid is built on the ruins of the disappeared Alcázar. One of the main projects of the king is to create a center of knowledge around what is today the Prado Park. All of these facilities are situated on one of the hills in Madrid called the Hill of the Sciences. There is a Observatory, the Botanical Garden, the Academy of Sciences, and the
  • 00:25:00 This video discusses the importance of the glass industry in Spain during the 18th century, and how the kings protected it in order to encourage industrial development. Foreign technicians and workers were also hired to help boost production, as the monarchs were motivated to promote the general development of manufacturing industries, rather than just fine-quality luxury goods. However, these reforms were eventually halted by the death of Carlos III and the Napoleonic invasion, which led to the political and social instability of the era. Most of the efforts to improve Spain were fruitless, as they were superficial and did not address the structural issues plaguing the population. Petty farmers, fishermen, weavers, and potters continued to make their living the same way as their fathers, reuniting for religious festivals and carrying on with their everyday lives. In France, one year after the death of Carlos III, the French Revolution erupted. Europe was in a new era, while in Spain the reigns of Carlos IV and Fernando VII coincided with the decline of the influential Spanish Enlightenment. Most of the proposed reforms were superficial and failed to have a lasting impact, as they were met with resistance from the nobility and the clergy. The video ends with the French Revolution and its impact on Spain.
  • 00:30:00 In the video, Goya portrays the dream of reason producing monsters in the drama of the confrontation between old and new ideas in the first half of the intense 19th century in Spain. Political changes and turns result from this struggle between liberals and reactionaries.

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