Summary of Universo Mecánico 46 La Máquina De La Naturaleza HD720p H 264 AAC

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The video discusses the history of the steam engine, focusing on the work of two French engineers, Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot and Sadi Carnot. Sadi Carnot is especially noted for his work in designing steam engines for railways. The video demonstrates how an ideal mechanical machine, known as a "karma machine," works. However, there is a problem with the machine: it cannot be used to power machines that are more efficient than those that are already available.

  • 00:00:00 The video discusses the history of the steam engine and its importance in the Industrial Revolution. It also focuses on the work of two French engineers, Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot and Sadi Carnot, who are often recognized as the masterminds behind the technology's success. Sadi Carnot is especially noted for his work in designing steam engines for railways.
  • 00:05:00 In the early 1800s, Sadi Carnot invented the steam engine, which made France more industrialized and powerful. His son, also named Sadi Carnot, continued his father's work and developed a theory that improved on the steam engine. One of the most important inventions in the history of the steam engine was the invention of the condenser, which made the engine more efficient. Carnot's most important contribution to the steam engine was his idea of using it to power machines that were not originally designed for that purpose. His invention of the Máquina de Vapor meant that France could now power machines that were much more powerful than those that had been available before.
  • 00:10:00 In the 1800s, Charles Nicholas Carnot was faced with the challenge of designing a machine that could work equally well as a refrigerator. He realized that the machine would work best if it had a heat-transferring fluid, so he began by reducing the machine's essential elements to a cilindro and an émbolo. Even without vapor, the cilindro could be filled with air and would produce heat by working against ambient air. The principle of this machine, now called a frigorífico, is still used in modern refrigerators.
  • 00:15:00 The video demonstrates how an ideal mechanical machine, known as a "karma machine," works. The machine uses heat and air to move the arm and keep it at a high temperature, then cools and contracts the air to make it easier to move the arm again. The arm then performs work. When the machine cools down, more work is needed to push the arm in. However, being colder inside the machine reduces the pressure, so less work is needed. As a result, there is a net gain in work performed. The machine is ideal because it shares the most important features of real machines. It enters heat and performs work, then must be expelled heat to a lower temperature to keep the engine ready for the next race. However, there is a problem. Heat flows easily from a hot source to a cold one, or from two hot sources to a cold one. However, these steps cannot be reversed, as it would require heat to flow in the wrong direction. The ideal machine of karma, which works equally well in both directions, is called a diabetic machine. The machine must be hot before the heat can be allowed to expand and enter work. After that, a step of isothermal work is done,
  • 00:20:00 The efficiency of the machine is justly the work done divided by the heat that enters; it could be said that some real motor might be more efficient than a machines of Carnot's principle, that is, it would need a smaller amount of heat than power and work to produce the same amount of work. If this were the case, work could be used to make the kart not work in the opposite direction if the real machine were connected to a machine of Carnot. The effect would be similar to hydraulic wheels on a cart. Remember that, if the real machine were more efficient, its internet would be smaller than it is currently. However, this contradicts the second principle of thermodynamics, which states that a real machine cannot be more efficient than a machine of karma. It is working with the heat that flows from a certain high temperature to a certain low temperature, the machine of carnota is always more efficient than a real machine, as the second principle of thermodynamics is true: the machine of kart is not the most efficient machine that allows nature to work. Cars Knox began an elegant analogy between the hydraulic wheel and concluded with the essence of a machine - the most efficient possible between two temperatures - but the analogy
  • 00:25:00 James Ward's goal was to create a more efficient steam engine, and in 1824, he succeeded with the invention of the steam engine. His rival, Nicolas Carnot, also worked on a more efficient steam engine, but he changed his focus to the theory of heat transfer and passed on Ward's engine to history. Ward's engine is now known as the "Carnot engine." In 1838, Rudolf Clausius published his work on the theory of heat transfer, which included the principle of entropy. Clausius's work would be the foundation of thermodynamics, which is the study of the energy and entropy of systems. The next day, we'll be talking about Rudolf Clausius and his work on entropy.

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