The video explores the history of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, the oldest and most prestigious educational institution in Peru. The university was established in 1571 to provide education to the children of the Spanish elite, and its founding was initiated by the Dominican order in an effort to understand the civilization and society they encountered in America. The video details the challenges faced by the university in its early years, including low attendance, difficult admission processes, and conflicts with the friars who originally controlled the school. The video also discusses the university's move to the San Marcelo location, the establishment of the patronato de San Marcos in 1574, and the adoption of its famous coat of arms. Overall, the video provides a comprehensive overview of the history of this esteemed institution.