Summary of ¡Vivan las caenas! (Memoria de España 19/26)

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This video provides a history of Spain during the 19th and 26th centuries. It discusses the French invasion of 1808, the liberal revolution of 1820, the failed coup of 1822, and the return of Fernando VII to the throne. The video highlights the suppression of the liberal revolution by Fernando VII's government, with particular focus on the creation of the police force to take the place of the Inquisition. Many Spanish citizens flee to exile, and Francisco de Goya joins them. When Fernando VII returns to Spain, he opts to flee to France, leaving a warning to Spain's future in his paintings.

  • 00:00:00 In 1808, Spain was invaded by French forces, and in Madrid, the popular uprising known as the Carlist Revolt began. Nearly 500 Spaniards were killed by the French after the revolt was suppressed, and the country was in danger. Madrid- which was quickly becoming a victim of French perfidy- was lost to the French after the abdication of King Carlos IV and his son Fernando VII in favor of Napoleon. The people abandoned the royal family after this, and the power vacuum was filled spontaneously by local juntas ( assemblies of the leading people of each community) and later by provincial juntas. The juntas were formed by the people of the community with the most prestige, and their main task was to restore public order and organize resistance against the invader. The French invasion caused a feeling of unity and connection among all Spaniards, and in the autumn of 1808, representatives from all juntas met in Aranjuez to elect a central junta, in the name of King Fernando VII held captive by Napoleon, to assume power in the unoccupied Spain. The junta's main vision was to coordinate the war effort against the French, and it was led by the old Count of Flor
  • 00:05:00 This YouTube video tells the story of the Spanish War of Independence, beginning with the French army's sudden attack on Spanish forces in the town of Vitoria. The popular uprising against the French quickly fails, and Napoleon's dreams of an imperial Napoleonic Europe are dashed. In November of 1808, Napoleon himself arrives in Spain, leading a large army of 250,000 soldiers. His goal is to take over the entire country, place his brother on the throne, and end the war. The French advance is overwhelming, and within a few weeks they march straight to Madrid. However, the Spanish army, led by General Moores, is waiting for them. The battle that ensues is one of Napoleon's best, and the French are eventually victorious. The British army, under the command of Duke Wellington, arrives in Spain a few months later, and together they launch a successful campaign against the French. The Spanish people, weary after years of fighting, are finally able to put an end to the conflict.
  • 00:10:00 The video discusses the Spanish Civil War, which took place from 1936 to 1939. The Spanish government, which was under the control of Napoleon, was defeated and forced to retreat to Cádiz, the only city that would remain under Spanish control for the next six years. The Spanish patriots, who had been resisting the French domination, turned to guerrilla warfare to try and keep the enemy at bay. At the beginning of Napoleon's reign, he had only a handful of soldiers, but with the help of his people, he began to build an army. By 1809, he had finally established himself in Madrid and began to implement his radical new constitution, which had been written in Bayona and signed by him in Alcolea. Many of the people who would later become part of Napoleon's government were either academics, politicians, or military officers of distinguished character and reformist mindset. Some of them, such as the poet Meléndez Valdés and the dramatist Fernández de Moratín, were already well-known before the war started. Others, such as the lawyer De Jovellanos and the banker Cabarrús, rose to prominence during Napoleon's reign. Jovellanos, in a letter to the
  • 00:15:00 This video covers the history of Spain during the Peninsular War of 1808-1814. The Spanish junta central, which Napoleon had attempted to conquer, retreated to the isla de Leon in Cádiz and established the government of the nation there. The junta members fled to San Fernando de Cadiz, an island surrounded by water and almost impenetrable for an army without a navy, where they all settled. Here, the government of the nation was established, and this is where the headquarters of the Spanish Republic were located. For Spaniards, Cádiz was also the center of political and cultural resistance to the French occupation. In the taverns of this city, the liberal word was being heard for the first time to designate the most reformist sectors of the dissolving junta central that pressured Napoleon to convene the Cortes (parliament) until the very end in order to achieve their goal of gaining the right to appoint the five regents. Cadiz was at that time a city under siege defended from the sea by British ships and full of refugees from all over Spain. Officials from all over Spain had converged on this city, making it the political and cultural center of the patriotic resistance. In these newly elected
  • 00:20:00 The Spanish Constitution of 1812 is a landmark document in Spanish history, defining the country's political structure and guaranteeing fundamental civil liberties. The Constitution was drafted over a year of debates and was approved by the Spanish Cortes Generales and Extraordinary in March of 1813. Key points of the Constitution include the nation's independence and freedom, the monarchy as the form of government, and Catholicism as the only official religion. It also establishes a system of representative government, recognizes Fernando VII as the country's constitutional monarch, and abolishes the Inquisition. The effects of the war on Spain were devastating, with Spain losing nearly one million citizens. The defeat of the Spanish army at the Battle of Salamanca in 1812 marked the end of Napoleon's ambitions in Spain and began the long process of Spain's recovery. Goya's paintings of the war's aftermath are a poignant reminder of the tragedy and brutality of the conflict.
  • 00:25:00 In 1813, after Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the French army in Spain begins to collapse. This is clearly seen by Napoleon, who decides to retreat back to France. The following year, 1814, Fernando VII is restored to the throne of Spain. Although he has the support of the army and the church, he still has to face the parliament and the regency, which still has executive power. Fernando VII spends much of 1814 measuring his strength, and in May he returns to Madrid to take back his absolute power. His arrival is greeted with great enthusiasm by the people. After his restoration, Fernando VII proceeds to repeal all of the reforms passed by the parliament. He also restores the power of the monarchy. This restores the people to citizens, and they are once again subjects.
  • 00:30:00 In 1814, before Spain isolated itself in its Fifth of the Sordo, Pablo Picasso painted a painting illustrating what was happening in the country. In it, time is held up to truth, and a scene shows history as a witness, including the figure of Bolívar, leader of the Venezuelan Revolution, who is depicted as a liberator. The new government, installed by the restored absolutist monarchy, begins to restrict civil liberties. The bourgeoisie, aware of Spain's economic decline and wanting to shift their activity to the Spanish market, needs deep reforms. The liberals are the only ones able to carry out these reforms. They are fought by the monarchy and the traditional military, and many of them go into exile. The guerrillas, who had been fighting during the war, continue to exist and are used by the new government to fight the monarchy. In 1822, after years of fighting, the liberals win a victory in a constitutional election. However, the absolutist monarchy is not defeated and continues to control the military. The new government begins to restrict civil liberties again. The bourgeoisie becomes increasingly frustrated with the monarchy and turns to liberalism as a way to fight for change. The guerrillas become involved in the fight, and
  • 00:35:00 In 1820, Spanish soldiers in the Basque Country staged a failed coup against the monarchy. One of the leaders of the coup, General Francisco Espoz, was from the province of Galicia. Francisco Séptimo, the king's brother, put down the coup and Espoz fled to France. In 1821, another coup attempt was made in the city of Valencia. This time, Juan Díaz Perlier was the leader, and it too failed. In 1822, the Spanish army sent to put down the rebellions in the Americas finally arrives in Spain. The king, Fernando Septimo, accepts the Constitution of 1812, which limits his power, and puts into effect the reforms approved by the Cortes of Cadiz. In 1823, General Rafael del Riego leads a successful coup against the monarchy in Seville, and is acclaimed with the song "Himno de Riego." The following year, the Spanish Empire in America falls to independent movements led by Bolívar in Venezuela, Simón Bolívar in Colombia, and José San Martín in Argentina. In 1824, the rebellion in Peru is put down at the Battle of Ayacucho. The Spanish Empire in America is now a
  • 00:40:00 In the 19th and 20th centuries, Spain underwent many political and social changes in an effort to return to its former glory. These changes included the restoration of laws passed by previous cortes, the continued legislative work of the deputies, the reform of education, the creation of new universities, amnesty for French expatriates, the creation of a national army to defend the liberal regime, the imposition of civilian authority over ecclesiastical authority, and the abolition of the orders of monasticism. Despite these changes, the people of Spain were still not happy with the liberal regime. This led to the emergence of two groups of liberals-the moderates and the exaltados. The radicals, who were the more radical of the two, had already begun the revolution and for the radicals, the process of Revolution was only just beginning. The light of the trágala (a popular song of the time) shone brightly throughout the land, and people were singing and dancing in the streets. Realists (known as the serviles) were facing off against the two groups of liberals, and in the rural areas of the north of Castile, Navarre, and Catalonia, bands of outlaws formed made up of deserters or former guerrillas
  • 00:45:00 The video provides a history of Spain during the 19th and 26th centuries, including the French invasion of 1808 and the restoration of the monarchy under Fernando VII. The video highlights the suppression of the liberal revolution by Fernando VII's government, with particular focus on the creation of the police force to take the place of the Inquisition. Many Spanish citizens flee to exile, and Francisco de Goya joins them. When Fernando VII returns to Spain, he opts to flee to France, leaving a warning to Spain's future in his paintings.

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