Summary of Sesión 5: ¿Qué es la corrupción?

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00:00:00 - 01:00:00

This video discusses the concept of corruption, its origins, and ways to prevent it. It also looks at different perspectives on the issue, with the orthodox perspective seeing it as a criminal act and the heterodox perspective seeing it as a problem with the state.

  • 00:00:00 This video discusses the concept of corruption and its origins in history. Professor Gabriel Misas from the University of Colombia discusses how corruption has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, and he is followed by professors Frederick Boeman and Clarlune Esteban Morris, who each present their own perspectives on the topic. The conversation then moves on to discuss specific forms of corruption, such as financial and political corruption. The panelists then answer audience questions on the chat room.
  • 00:05:00 During the Cold War, prior to, for example, the Septocracies, there was the friendly, deeply rooted, such as the Congo's taste in the air high in Indonesia. Some of these were tolerated, but not well, because they were corrupt and dictators. The Soviet Union versus the Western powers for this reason had no greater interest in the problems of governance. Because, in addition, the implicit was that this only occurred in countries from the Third World and not in countries in the center, and it was better to have friends who were corrupt than to support the fight against them, euphemistically called the "communism" at that time, all of the movements that felt the hegemony of central power felt this way. Soon, however, this was corrupt, and friends disappeared with the end of the Cold War. Quickly, these teptocracies' friendly-enemy relationship turned into a problem, and they were quickly eliminated with consequences of a process of openness that is fighting against corruption and accepts leadership not being accepted. For the first time, the World Bank begins to talk about the fight against corruption, at the same time as the end of the Cold War brings about a new discourse, the neoliberal discourse, which is the elimination of much of the state.
  • 00:10:00 In this fifth video of a series, economist Pierre Bourdieu discusses how the idea of eradicating government spending in order to fight corruption has been disproved. He suggests that private businesses are more efficient at generating growth, and that government interference in the economy is actually a hindrance to it. He also points to the decline of the "establishment" of economics in the United States in the early to mid 20th century as evidence that the neoliberal model of capitalism is ineffective.
  • 00:15:00 This video discusses why Japan has had a very positive reception to the ideas of green activists, and why this is due to the fact that their organizational model is administratively public, characterized by meritocratic recruitment and predictable remunerations over a long period of time. This was more effective for facilitating capitalist growth than any other type of public-sector experience in western and eastern Europe, according to social scientists. It is not unusual for social science research on public organizations to have a negative impact on economic dynamics, as is the case in East Asia. This is why the reason for this is quite simple - when reform is undertaken in Japan. Japón tiene una gran aceptación a las ideas de activistas verdes, debido a que su modelo organizativo es administrativamente público, caracterizado por el reclutamiento meritocrático y predicable y las remuneraciones profesionales a largo plazo eran más efectivas para facilitar el crecimiento capitalista que cualquier otra forma de organización estatal de experiencia, según los científic
  • 00:20:00 This video discusses the differences in corruption rates among countries in Latin America. Colombia has a high rate of corruption, relative to other countries in the region. This is attributed to the longstanding tradition of political patronage in Colombia, as well as the lack of effective oversight of government officials. The video also discusses the role of business and government corruption in reducing efficiency and impairing the ability of businesses to compete.
  • 00:25:00 The speaker explains how corruption affects a country's economy and political system, and offers a historical perspective on how it developed. She then discusses how the organization Transparency Colombia seeks to address the issue. She finishes by sharing her thoughts on the importance of their mission and why it is important to fight corruption. Transparency Colombia is an organization that seeks to fight corruption in Colombia. They do this by transferring money quickly and understanding the corruption situation in Colombia. They also aim to improve the economy and political system by working with the social sector.
  • 00:30:00 Transparency International describes corruption as the abuse of power for personal gain, and it covers a wide range of activities, from legal crimes like bribery to illegitimate acts like capture of state institutions. In Colombia, Transparency International has been working to fight corruption for over 25 years, and its goal is a country free of corruption. Part 1 of this video looks at different definitions of corruption, and discusses how it is viewed by different actors. Transparencia Colombia defines it as the abuse of positions of power or trust for personal gain. They have been working to fight corruption for over 25 years and see it as a global problem that needs to be addressed urgently. Part 2 of the video looks at different ways corruption can occur, and discusses how it has become more complex over time. Corruption can take many different forms, and can involve offering or receiving goods or money in exchange for favors. It can also involve using or abusing positions of power to get something or someone. Transparency International believes that understanding the way corruption works is essential in fighting it. This video is meant to be shared with the public so they can understand the issue better.
  • 00:35:00 In this video, various topics related to corruption are discussed, including how it is expressed, its origins, and the ways in which it can be prevented. The panelists also share their thoughts on how to measure corruption and its effects on human rights.
  • 00:40:00 The video discusses how to measure corruption, and provides examples of how it is measured. It also discusses Colombia's ranking in regards to corruption, and how it has decreased since the government took office. The presenter explains that one way to measure corruption is through surveys on public perception of corruption, and offers data from a recent survey. The presenter also discusses how the commission measures corruption, through analyzing risks associated with specific institutions. Finally, the presenter provides a brief overview of how Bogotá is going to release its corruption index later this year.
  • 00:45:00 The video discusses the definition of corruption, and how it is prevalent in Colombia. It also discusses how businesses are involved in corruption, and how to fight it. Stefan Morris, a professor from the United States, discusses his book, "Recorrection versus Ride and Dies Editado en los Estados Unidos."
  • 00:50:00 Eduardo discusses the dilemma of definition in his new book, which is important because it determines the limits of acceptable behavior and defines the political boundaries of what is possible. He talks about how the power to corrupt is something that only exists in the imagination, as there is no such thing as absolute power. However, the problem is that those in power often use their power to benefit themselves instead of the public good. This paradoxical situation leads to endless debates about what constitutes corruption, with those in power typically promoting their own perspectives rather than coming to a consensus.
  • 00:55:00 The video discusses the three main aspects of corruption: definition, limitation, and prevention. It also discusses the orthodox and heterodox perspectives on corruption. The orthodox perspective sees it as a criminal act that is motivated mainly by personal greed, while the heterodox perspective sees it as a problem with the state. Both perspectives propose ways to reduce corruption. The main difference between the two perspectives is that the orthodox perspective sees corruption as a criminal act, while the heterodox perspective sees it as a problem with the state.

01:00:00 - 01:55:00

The video discusses the concept of corruption and how it can occur at both the government and private levels. It also discusses the difficulties of controlling so many people, and how Gabriel mentioned that the United States allowed corruption during the time of the Cold War in order to fight communism. However, each government must make decisions about corruption, and whether or not to use anticorruption measures for other political purposes.

  • 01:00:00 Aristotle argued many years ago that corruption includes using or capturing institutions to promote one's own political and economic interests, going beyond simply creating institutions in such a way as to promote one's own interests. This Essay looks at the dilemmas posed by the definition of institutional corruption, including whether it requires greater levels of power or disbalances of power to be effective. It is relevant to this debate, as data shows that people are most concerned about institutional corruption, which is usually legal and institutional, than corruption involving illegal activities. People see this in the fact that the institutions that the world considers the most corrupt are political parties and their role is to represent the interests of the people. The people feel that they are corrupt because they are not representing their interests and needs. Congress is one of the institutions that people are most concerned about in terms of corruption.
  • 01:05:00 In the fifth session of the Sesión series, three panelists discuss the concept of corruption. The panelists discuss ways to reduce the size of the government, with the focus on privatizing public services and reducing the power of the powerful. They also discuss the problem of corruption and how it can be linked to the weakening of the state. Lastly, the panelist asks a question that opens up a discussion on how to fight corruption.
  • 01:10:00 The video discusses the issue of corruption and how to fight it. It discusses the concept of public and private corruption, and explains that public corruption can only happen with private participation, but private corruption can exist without public participation. The video then goes on to discuss the formula for clicgard of monopolio, which was introduced in Bogotá in 2003 and was heavily criticized by the Contralor General at the time. The formula is said to be a "simpatico but not serious" arrangement that has no real foundation. People often confuse power with control, and assume that because private companies are less transparent than private businesses, they are corrupt. Perception also has a lot to do with it- for example, when people are against a certain policy automatically leads them to believe that the entity in question is corrupt. Finally, the video discusses how monetary policy affects perception. It argues that because private companies have a lot of power, people tend to think they are conduits for a higher amount of money when, in fact, they have little power to begin with.
  • 01:15:00 The video discusses corruption and how it can happen. It explains that there are three main ways in which corruption can take place: by using public resources for private gain, by diverting public funds to illegitimate uses, and by bribing government officials. It also notes that corruption is not limited to high-level officials, and that it can happen at any level of government. The video then goes on to discuss how to fight corruption. It recommends that governments implement tough penalties for those caught engaging in corruption, and that they enforce transparency laws to ensure that public money is used for its intended purpose. It also suggests training and oversight of government officials to prevent corruption from happening.
  • 01:20:00 The video discusses the concept of corruption and its various manifestations, including public sector corruption and private sector corruption. It also discusses the ways in which policies implemented under neoliberalism may have contributed to the prevalence of corruption. The professor provides some constructive comments and invites listeners to share their thoughts on the matter in the comments section.
  • 01:25:00 In this fifth video, sociologist Gabriel Sí asks whether attacking the state and privatizing everything is the answer to corruption, and if this is part of the problem. He points out that corruption is part of the problem, not the solution, and that this approach to corruption is limited to damaging interests, not promoting ones. He gives the example of campaign finance in the U.S., where the majority of people believe that political money is buying public policy, but this is perfectly legal. He argues that this system is self-perpetuating, with corrupt governments being less likely to be challenged and political power being more easily captured by business and political interests, both on the left and the right.
  • 01:30:00 In this session, professor Morris discusses how the left and right conceptualize corruption differently. He says that the left tends to focus on corporate corruption, while the right focuses more on structural corruption. Ultimately, both sides have failed in their efforts to reduce corruption levels. However, the ideas of Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, the current president of Mexico, are very different from those of Enrique Peña Nieto, the former president of Mexico. Lopez Obrador focuses more on fighting corruption at the individual level, while Peña Nieto focused more on fighting corruption at the institutional level. Even though their concepts of combating corruption are different, both the left and right have failed to achieve success in reducing corruption levels.
  • 01:35:00 The video discusses the issue of corruption and its effects on society. It discusses how corruption can exist in both left- and right-wing governments, and how it has not been effectively combatted by either type of government. It also discusses the importance of having a strong anticorruption infrastructure and the need for political will to implement it.
  • 01:40:00 The video discusses the concept of corruption, discussing how it can occur at both the government and private levels. It also discusses the difficulties of controlling so many people, and how Gabriel mentioned that the United States allowed corruption during the time of the Cold War in order to fight communism. However, each government must make decisions about corruption, and whether or not to use anticorruption measures for other political purposes. We don't believe this is an issue in Brazil, where the president must buy political support. This is in contrast to other countries, where corruption is often associated with a certain culture. It is significant that Morris discusses the importance of culture when discussing corruption, as it sheds light on the complex relationship between politics and culture. We don't consider corruption to be as relevant as its culture counterpart, which is why we are looking more closely at political practices and how they impact culture. We believe that political practices should be shaped by an understanding of civic and political education. Finally, we touch on the issue of public safety and how it is affected by broken institutions.
  • 01:45:00 The video discusses the topic of corruption and its relation to culture. It discusses how culture can be seen as the consequence of corruption, and how individuals learn to deal with the system in which they find themselves. The discussion then turns to the idea that corruption is not simply a political problem, but is instead a result of cultural practices that are unrelated to high-level corruption. Finally, the video asks each viewer to think about a particular case of corruption they are aware of, and to share their thoughts on how culture can play a role in it.
  • 01:50:00 The presenter reflects on what could be a better way to inform citizens about corruption, saying in simple terms what the citizens' council would tell them to look for when detecting corruption and why it is not always so obvious. Four times more or that construction projects are halted for lack of proper study, leading to lost money not only from production but also from inefficiency in the chain of decision-making. It is therefore very difficult to point out anything specifically because, as mentioned before, the leadership can be considered inefficient in planning projects, which can result in four times more lost money than usual. Furthermore, the presenter mentions that, before taking office, a new president in Guatemala was promised to create a commission with full powers to eradicate corruption, but this was not actually implemented until after the president had been elected. Therefore, the presenter does not feel guilty or ashamed, but rather determined to continue the fight against corruption, even if it means taking on individuals as well as the government itself.
  • 01:55:00 This video discusses the prevalence of corruption in Colombia, and how it affects the country's democracy. It also discusses how journalists have been working to fight corruption for the past five years, and how citizens can report corruption. Finally, the presenter invites everyone to the next corruption session, which will focus on human rights.

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