Summary of DOCUMENTAL. Reforma, tiempo eje de México 2da parte

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The documentary explains the conflict between the liberals and conservatives in Mexico, and how it led to the Mexican-American War. The war was fought primarily by the military and clergy of the Catholic Church, and it ended with the liberals in power. The documentary also discusses the importance of the Veracruz port in maintaining Mexican relations with the United States and Europe.

  • 00:00:00 In 1857, Mexico was divided into two camps due to deep political, economic, educational, and religious differences. This led to the cancellation of peaceful dialogue and conciliation. The conservative faction, led by the church, fought against the new state-established government, which ordered the Catholic Church to obey the state. This led to the liberals, already divided over the role of the church, engaging in full-out warfare. In the middle of the battle, the minister of justice, Benito Juárez, took over as president after the ousted president, Liberal Ignacio Comonfort, was saved by the intervention of his treasury secretary, Guillermo Zuloaga. Juárez put down the coup led by General Felipe Zuloaga with the help of the army, and established a constitutional government in Guanajuato. In the capital, Mexico City, the conservative faction put down the liberal rebellion led by General Felix Zuloaga with the help of the army, and restored traditional order. While this was happening, in Mexico City, a representative assembly from the provinces appointed General Francisco "Pancho" Villa as president of Mexico, after he overthrew the government of Liberal President Benito Juárez.
  • 00:05:00 This documentary explains the reason why the Mexican government is divided between two presidents, one conservative in Mexico City and one liberal in the rural, poor state of Tampico. Insecurity is widespread, and President Juarez travels to Colima and Manzanillo before departing for Veracruz, where he is protected by General Liberal Manuel Gutiérrez Amor. However, the government of Liberal President is crucial to maintain Mexican diplomatic and economic relations with both the United States and Europe, due to the port's importance as a maritime hub. The government is also able to support military action, in part because it is connected to the United States and Europe through the Veracruz-Tampico-Guanajuato border crossing. The conservative government, under General Leonardo Márquez, eventually triumphs, largely due to the professional, well-equipped army of the conservatives led by General Luis Geo. However, the liberal government does not go down without a fight. Robber of God Macabeo, a soldier of God, helps the liberals at first, but eventually sides with the conservatives.
  • 00:10:00 In this video, the narrator discusses the origins of the Mexican-American War, which started in 1858. The war was fought primarily by the military and clergy of the Catholic Church, who were uniting to fight against their common enemy, the United States. Due to a split within the conservative faction, the president of Mexico, Miguel Miramón, assumed leadership of the country. This led to Miramón's campaign to take Veracruz, which would prove to be a major victory for the government. However, while Miramón was away leading his troops, General Félix Lozano, who had replaced Miramón, was killed by a group of constitutionalists led by General Santos Degollado. This led Miramón to march back to Mexico City, where he was met by General Leonardo Márquez, who had also returned to the capital. Márquez, seeing that the capital was secure, decided to head back to Guadalajara instead. While Márquez was away, General Santos Degollado had attacked the capital from the palace of the archbishop, maintaining a siege on the city without taking it. However, while Márquez was still in the city, he had turned
  • 00:15:00 In this video, Miguel Miramón, a high-ranking Mexican Army officer, meets with his subordinate, General Márquez, to discuss the fate of their prisoners. Miramón orders the execution of those officers who have been captured as enemy combatants, and this order is published. Márquez is then responsible for the fact that these officers were given military training and became officers. Miramón is reputed for his bloodthirsty and sanguinary nature, and he disobeys his instruction not to execute their prisoners. The mass execution of soldiers, civilians, and medical personnel at Tacubaya is one of Mexico's black legends. Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, a 25-year-old medical student, was there and saw the atrocities. He was able to find his friends, who barely recognized them. They were all muddled together by bullets. After many battles and despite the conservative advance, the war has no clear victors or vanquished. The most experienced army in Mexico, led by Miramón, is opposed by passionate liberal guerrilla forces all over the country. Even though the conservative forces have won battle after battle, the war is not over. I'm talking specifically about the fact that the enemy was
  • 00:20:00 In this video, Mexican President Benito Juárez and U.S. Ambassador Robert M. McLain discuss the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which granted the United States the right to travel and build railways through northern Mexico and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. In exchange, Juárez receives financial compensation and U.S. support in the war against the Conservative Party. Juárez and his advisors are aware of the Conservatives' dwindling support and are eager to improve their political position before they disappear. In Veracruz, Juárez and his cabinet work on designing a strategy for war with the Conservatives, who are heavily armed and ready for battle. The Liberals receive aid from the United States in the form of artillery and military equipment. Veracruz is also crucial to the Liberal offensive, as it is the main port on the Gulf of Mexico and on the Pacific coast. Juárez and his advisors are confident that they can win the war, and they focus on passing necessary legislation and building public support before the Conservative victory is evident to the nation. The Catholic Church is one of the Conservatives' main allies, and the Liberals are aware that passing necessary legislation and reforming the country's
  • 00:25:00 In this video, reformist Mexican president, Enrique Peña Nieto, discusses the nationalization of church-owned property. The move is seen as a way to take away an important source of income for conservative politicians, and to channel it towards the Liberal Party and the new state, which would finally end the problem of Catholic dominance of Mexican citizenship. The problem, however, is that these laws have become political weapons, and can be used against the Catholic Church. The secularization of cemeteries is also seen as a way to gain control of religious ceremonies that were traditionally carried out by the church. There are also economic benefits to be gained from this legislation, as private investors come to Mexico looking for opportunities. Meanwhile, in England or Germany, priests or Anglican ministers representing a different religion are arriving, and the Catholic Church is reacting by issuing a pastoral letter condemning the new laws. President Peña Nieto avoids Veracruz and Panchi Chapala, who is now married to Tonala, meets Juanita Anauati in a movie theater. Hoxe tonal, la negativa vasca de un chico listing casting y pía one plan agua ticket la chica igualmente amor wellisch gala quise
  • 00:30:00 The documentary, "Reforma, time and Mexico's second part," discusses the process of reform in Mexico, which includes the introduction of new, secular laws to combat the power of the clergy. The two sides of the conflict - the conservative army and the liberal government - scramble to acquire the resources necessary to continue the war. After two unsuccessful years of fighting, the church's support for the conservative side has weakened, and the people of Mexico are no longer as eager to support the military. This has negative consequences for the army, as the people it is fighting against start to withdraw their financial backing. In the end, the conservative side loses the war, and the documentary provides an interesting perspective on the Mexican presidency, as some of the most valuable benefits Mexico has received from the United States have come without having to give what the Americans wanted in return.
  • 00:35:00 In 1864, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico instituted liberal reforms, which prompted a conservative backlash. In the battle of Calpulalpan, Miguel Miramón's army defeats the conservative forces commanded by José María Gutiérrez de Estrada. This event leads to the end of the conservative military regime.
  • 00:40:00 In 1873, Mexican President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada enacted reform laws, which included the Constitution of 1857's reform provisions. These laws stripped away many important individual rights and areas of civil life, such as marriage, birth registration, and death, in order to secularize the state. This was a major contribution of the laws collectively known as the "Laws of Reform." The effort and ambition of that generation of brilliant Mexicans and their masks of conquest remain today with the Laws of Reform, which endure as the country's time-frame foundation.

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