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00:00:00 - 01:00:00

In this section, the Director General of the John Langdon Down Foundation, Pilar Mostalac, acknowledges the conference and introduces Silvia García Escamilla, the President and Founder of the foundation. Regina Moya, the creator of the initiative, is also recognized. The President of the foundation then welcomes the audience and introduces the speaker, Miguel Zunzunegui. The speaker is praised for being a great teacher and writer. Zunzunegui expresses his gratitude for the opportunity to collaborate with the John Langdon Down Foundation. He acknowledges the foundation's valuable work and its significance in the field of inclusion and disability studies. The section concludes with a brief overview of the speaker and his background.

  • 00:00:00 In this section, Pilar Mostalac, the Director General of the John Langdon Down Foundation, expresses gratitude and excitement for the conference and introduces the President and Founder of the foundation, Silvia García Escamilla. Regina Moya, the creator of the initiative, is also acknowledged. The speaker, Miguel Zunzunegui, is then introduced with a brief background of his education and accomplishments. He is praised as a great teacher and writer. Zunzunegui expresses his gratitude for being able to collaborate with the John Langdon Down Foundation and acknowledges the valuable work they do.
  • 00:05:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the life of Hernán Cortés and compares him to historical figures like Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great. He criticizes the narrative that presents Cortés as a villain and portrays the indigenous people as perfect and noble, emphasizing the importance of acknowledging the complexity of history. The speaker also highlights the significance of the Spanish language and how Mexico, as the largest Spanish-speaking country, has a rich Hispanic heritage. He argues that it is impossible to love a country if one hates a significant part of its history, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the mestizo heritage of Mexico and the role of Cortés in its formation.
  • 00:10:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the idea that Mexico's current identity is a result of the conquest and Hernan Cortes' arrival. The speaker argues against the notion that Mexico would be better off without the Spanish colonization and laments the nostalgic view of a country that never existed. They emphasize the importance of understanding the history behind Hernan Cortes and the cultural mix that occurred during that time. The speaker suggests that Cortes represents the meeting of different civilizations after thousands of years of separation and highlights the significance of this encounter in shaping the modern world. They assert that hating the Spanish roots of Mexico means hating Mexico itself, as many of its cultural expressions are influenced by the fusion of indigenous and Spanish cultures. The speaker also addresses the importance of understanding the historical context behind Cortes, including the religious conflicts and cultural exchanges that occurred during that period.
  • 00:15:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the cultural syncretism that underlies Mexico and the concept of mestizaje, highlighting that Mexico is a country that embodies the blending of indigenous American and Spanish cultures. They argue that Mexico has been taught to be ashamed of its origins and that it is important to restore the figure of Hernán Cortés to its rightful place in history. The speaker quotes several prominent scholars who emphasize the significance of Cortés in shaping Mexico's identity. They also stress the importance of understanding history as a construction of interpretations and caution against using history to create national mythologies.
  • 00:20:00 In this section, the narrator discusses the conquest of Mexico by Hernan Cortes in 1521 and highlights the importance of understanding historical events in their proper context. They explain that at the time of the conquest, there was no entity called Mexico, nor was there a unified territory, language, economy, or political and religious organization. The narrator emphasizes that applying present-day concepts such as nationalism to events of the 16th century is irrelevant. They also address the significance of the Spanish language in shaping our worldview, expressing emotions, and understanding the world. The narrator challenges the idea of blaming the Spanish for conquering Mexico, stating that such reasoning is absurd, as it would be like teaching Turks to hate their own ancestors for conquering Turkey. They argue that conquests and encounters between civilizations have shaped human history throughout time, and that it is important to acknowledge these historical realities rather than engaging in violent acts or hatred towards the past.
  • 00:25:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the ongoing violence that exists in society today, tracing it back to the violent encounters that shaped different cultures throughout history. The focus then shifts to the story of Hernán Cortés, a central figure in the conquest of Mexico. The speaker describes the honor and reverence given to Cortés' remains in 1794, highlighting his role as the founding father of New Spain. At that time, Cortés was widely loved and respected. However, the speaker suggests that perspectives on Cortés have changed over time, indicating that the story will jump ahead to later periods.
  • 00:30:00 In this section, the narrator sets the scene in Mexico City on September 16, 1823, where an enraged mob decides to loot and burn the remains of Hernán Cortés, the conquistador. What's interesting is that the person inciting the crowd to act is Fray Servando Teresa de Mier, who had previously given a speech honoring Cortés. However, before the mob can carry out their plans, it is discovered that Cortés' remains have mysteriously disappeared. It was not until 1946 that the remains of Cortés were found, hidden by Lucas Alamán, a minister of the government at the time. Alamán, wanting to protect the remains from the mob, cleverly hid them under the floor of the Jesus Nazareno temple. This section sheds light on the intrigue surrounding the disappearance and rediscovery of Cortés' remains.
  • 00:35:00 In this section, it is mentioned that Hernán Cortés, the Spanish conquistador who led the expedition to conquer Mexico, had no direct mandate from the Spanish crown to undertake the conquest. Cortés, born in 1485 and died in 1547, had a vision of a mestizo society and dreamed of establishing a university for indigenous people in New Spain. However, his dreams were not fulfilled due to the opposition of the Spanish crown. Cortés also faced a legal battle against Emperor Charles V for 25 years, as he believed in creating a distinct kingdom that promoted cultural mixing and independence from Spain. His writings about the conquest were widely read, but Charles V prohibited their publication and possession, even organizing a bonfire to burn Cortés' books. This legal conflict ultimately ended with Cortés' death. His remains were brought back to New Spain twenty years later, where his sons were involved in a failed revolt for independence.
  • 00:40:00 In this section, the narrator discusses the discovery and reburial of Hernán Cortés' remains. The remains of Cortés were buried together with those of his fellow conquistadors and were eventually taken to the Temple of San Francisco in Mexico City. Later, in 1794, they were solemnly reburied in the Temple of Jesus Nazareno. However, in 1823, the remains disappeared and were not found again until 1947. A Spanish exile discovered a hidden niche where the remains were kept, and they were authenticated through a notarial act. The remains were then placed back in the same location and a plaque was installed. The fascinating aspect is that Cortés reappeared during a period of cultural reconstruction in Mexico, where a new national identity was being formed. However, the narrative of the conquest became a foundational myth for this new identity, emphasizing the violence and conflict between the indigenous people and the Spanish. The narrator argues that Mexico is not conquered by Spain, but by its own historical discourse, which perpetuates ideas of defeat and conquest.
  • 00:45:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the lasting impact of the conquest on Mexican identity and how it has shaped the nation's history. He argues that the narrative of victimization and humiliation perpetuated through generations has done significant damage to the Mexican psyche. Using examples from the early 19th century, he highlights how the political manipulation of history and the demonization of figures like Hernán Cortés serve to distract from the real issues and hinder progress. The speaker emphasizes the need to critically analyze historical events and challenge the dominant narratives in order to move forward as a nation.
  • 00:50:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the concept of el trauma de la conquista as a central aspect of Mexican identity and culture. The speaker argues that the country's history of being conquered and oppressed has left a deep emotional wound that continues to impact the collective unconscious of Mexican people. The speaker then goes on to discuss how the country's narratives and historical accounts shape its understanding of itself and the world around it, and how these narratives can be both empowering and limiting.
  • 00:55:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the power dynamics within the narratives of national histories. They argue that historical narratives are constructed by those in power, with ideological interests influencing the interpretation of events. The speaker emphasizes that the knowledge of history is power, and those who control the narrative hold the power over the people. They highlight the need for individuals to critically analyze historical interpretations and understand that they are often constructed with specific agendas. By reevaluating historical figures like Hernán Cortés and reinterpreting their actions, the speaker suggests that it is a way of reclaiming and reshaping their own identity as a nation, moving away from a narrative of defeat and embracing a more empowering one. Overall, the speaker calls for a critical understanding of history and the recognition that the telling of history is far from an innocent activity.

01:00:00 - 02:00:00

In this YouTube video titled "Hernan Cortes y el Trauma de la Conquista," the speaker discusses the power dynamics and historical myths surrounding the conquest of Mexico by Hernan Cortes. They argue that the current government perpetuates a victim mentality and blames external forces for Mexico's problems. The speaker emphasizes the need to break away from this narrative and hold individuals accountable for their actions. They also discuss Cortes' background and upbringing, highlighting his complex personality and his belief in cultural fusion. The speaker further explores Cortes' diplomatic efforts, the meeting between Cortes and Moctezuma, and the traumatic events experienced by Cortes during the conquest. They also touch on the importance of accepting Mexico's mestizo identity and reconciling with the past.

  • 01:00:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the power dynamics at play in Mexico's government and how they manipulate history to justify their actions. They explain that the current government embraces a discourse of victimization, blaming external forces for Mexico's problems rather than taking responsibility. This discourse perpetuates the idea that Mexico is a conquered nation and attributes blame to historical figures like Hernan Cortes and the Spaniards. The speaker argues that this victim mentality hinders progress and prevents Mexicans from taking ownership of their actions and working towards a better future. They emphasize the need to break away from this narrative and hold individuals accountable for their actions.
  • 01:05:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the historical myth surrounding Hernan Cortes and the trauma of conquest in Mexico. He mentions that Mexicans often blame Cortes and the Spanish for their current struggles, believing that everything was perfect until the arrival of the Spanish. However, he argues that this narrative is a lie and that all empires, including the Aztec Empire, are violent and sanguinary. He highlights that it is essential for Mexicans to understand the pillars of their historical myth in order to discover the collective unconscious of the Mexican people. He also criticizes the lack of dialogue in Mexican society and the belief that Mexico is the only country that laments its past conquest.
  • 01:10:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the myth and trauma of the conquest of Mexico by Hernan Cortes. The speaker criticizes the narrative that portrays Cortes as a deformed, syphilitic conqueror who defeated the magnificent Aztec civilization. They argue that this narrative perpetuates a victimized identity and reinforces the idea that poverty is a virtue. The speaker also criticizes the portrayal of wealth as something achieved through corruption and dishonesty, emphasizing that many successful entrepreneurs in Mexico have worked hard to achieve their success. They highlight how this narrative is promoted in Mexican telenovelas and popular songs, perpetuating the belief that the only way to escape poverty is through marrying a rich person, but portraying such individuals negatively as opportunistic climbers. Overall, the speaker argues that these narratives contribute to a cycle of victimhood and limit the possibilities for personal and social advancement.
  • 01:15:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the creation and perpetuation of a myth of defeat, conquest, and violence surrounding the figure of Hernán Cortés in Mexican history. They argue that all nations have myths that generate identity and propel them forward, but Mexico has chosen to build and teach a myth of defeat. The speaker emphasizes the importance of questioning who the real Hernán Cortés was, highlighting his complex background as a member of noble families in Extremadura, Spain, and his upbringing in a medieval tradition of serving the crown. They describe Cortés as a interesting figure who straddled the transition from the medieval to the modern world, embodying both the ideals of a medieval knight and the individualistic mindset of a modern person. They also mention his devoutness and belief in his own abilities.
  • 01:20:00 In this section, it is discussed how Hernan Cortes' unique upbringing as an only child shaped his personality and played a role in his later achievements. Cortes had a sense of entitlement and believed that he deserved everything, which contributed to his megalomania and narcissism. However, these traits are not inherently negative and can be channeled in a positive way. Cortes had a relatively problem-free childhood and was raised in a wealthy family. He was well-educated by his parents and private tutors, and he developed a love for adventure and the outdoors. At the age of 14, he entered the University of Salamanca, where he studied for four years with renowned teachers and classmates, including Antonio de Nebrija and Fray Bartolome de las Casas. Cortes left the university at the age of 18 with a degree in law and humanities, and he was highly cultured and knowledgeable in various subjects. In 1504, at the age of 18, Cortes set off for the unknown, leaving Europe behind and arriving in the Carribean, where the Castilians had been colonizing for the past ten years. Cortes faced a daunting situation with a dwindling population of Castilians and constant conflict with the indigenous people. However, he realized that the current methods of colonization were destructive and sought a different approach. Cortes recognized the value of learning from and working with the indigenous people, as they had knowledge of the land and resources. This marked the beginning of Cortes' experience and his efforts to pacify the island of Santo Domingo (Haiti) at the age of 16. He became an important figure within the Caribbean administration and led the task of pacifying the island, but he questioned the violent methods used and proposed a more harmonious approach. Despite criticism, Cortes believed that the indigenous people held the key to survival and agriculture in the region, and he aimed to learn from them.
  • 01:25:00 In this section, Hernán Cortés is portrayed as someone who embraces the concept of mestizaje, or cultural fusion, as he establishes his own vision of life. Despite facing criticisms from others, he chooses to live with an indigenous Taína woman, whom he baptizes and integrates into his life as his wife. Cortés believes in coexisting and learning from the indigenous people, and he establishes cities in Cuba based on this principle of living alongside the existing cultures. Although his actions are heavily criticized by other Spaniards, Cortés becomes successful in promoting mestizaje and even faces imprisonment for his beliefs. Eventually, he sets his sights on exploring and conquering the rumored "Tierra Firme" (mainland), and he finances the expedition himself. Despite suspicions from Diego Velázquez, Cortés prepares for a permanent settlement rather than just exploration, bringing horses, livestock, and crops. This highlights Cortés' determination to create something completely new and different from the Castilian culture.
  • 01:30:00 In this section, the narrator discusses Hernan Cortes' journey and diplomatic efforts during the conquest. Cortes seeks diplomatic exchanges with the indigenous peoples he encounters, presenting himself as a peaceful figure. He engages in intercultural marriages and promotes the mixing of cultures. Cortes is described as charismatic, with a fortunate streak, always finding interpreters and adapting to different languages. The narrator emphasizes the role of a woman called Malinche, or Marina, who becomes Cortes' translator and advisor. Malinche plays a significant role in shaping Cortes' decisions and interactions with indigenous leaders. Cortes eventually meets with Montezuma, and despite the cultural divide, they engage in religious discussions and find common ground in certain creation myths.
  • 01:35:00 In this section, the speaker discusses the meeting between Hernán Cortés and Moctezuma, highlighting the unique protocols and respect shown between the two leaders. It is mentioned that the Franciscans later turned this meeting into a myth, portraying Cortés as a god-like figure. However, the speaker argues that this is a construct from the 19th century, and that Moctezuma actually questioned Cortés about the number of Spanish conquistadors that would follow him, showing his wisdom and acceptance of the situation. The section also touches on the tensions and betrayals that arose between both sides, leading to the eventual loss of control and the infamous "Noche Triste."
  • 01:40:00 In this section, we learn about the traumatic events experienced by Hernan Cortes during the conquest of Tenochtitlan. After the Spaniards were forced to flee in the "Noche Triste," Cortes, as a human being, experienced emotions such as sorrow and disappointment. He had achieved so much, but now his dreams had crumbled and he had lost half of his people. Despite the challenges, Cortes persevered and became the leader of the surviving 500. In order to ensure their survival, he needed the support of the Aztec's enemies and offered them the treasures of Tenochtitlan. This ultimately led to the fall of the city in 1521. The narrator also highlights the mestizo identity of Mexicans, a blend of indigenous and Spanish cultures, and how the figure of the Virgin of Guadalupe, brought by Cortes, became an important symbol in Mexican Catholicism, intertwining both indigenous and Spanish influences.
  • 01:45:00 Throughout this section of the video, the speaker discusses the myth of Guadalupe, a culto to the Virgin of Guadalupe, a Catholic iconography present in Mexico. The speaker highlights the powerful and fascinating spiritual aspects of the cult, despite its controversial history. The cult of Guadalupe originated in 16th century Mexico, following the triumph of the Spanish over Islam and the Muslim Moors. The speaker emphasizes the importance of Guadalupe as a patron of Hispanidad and Spain, with each Spanish king required by tradition to visit the collective's monastery at least once during their lifetime. The Spanish colonization of Mexico and its subsequent mestization led to the emergence of the peaceful and mexican Virgin of Guadalupe. Despite not having given birth yet, the Andrew of Sosa saint was the result of the accidental mixing of Spanish and indigenous cultures. The struggle for recognition and acceptance of Israel's divine origin is discussed, and the video concludes with a focus on the importance of accepting the Spanish colonization of Mexico and its subsequent mestization as crucial factors that led to the peaceful coexistence of cultures.
  • 01:50:00 In this section of the YouTube video, the narrator discusses the historical significance of the encounter between the Aztecs and Hernán Cortés. The narrator emphasizes that the Aztec civilization was one of many indigenous cultures that were conquered and absorbed by the Spanish during the colonization of the Americas. However, the encounter between the Aztecs and Cortés was particularly violent, and the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was destroyed by Spanish forces. Despite this, the narrator suggests that the encounter between these two cultures was fascinating and important, as it resulted in the creation of a new culture that combined elements of both the Aztec and Spanish traditions.
  • 01:55:00 In this section of the video, the speaker emphasizes the importance of embracing Mexico's mestizo identity, which is a result of the encounter between Hernan Cortes and the indigenous cultures 500 years ago. The speaker believes that the conflict that exists in our minds as Mexicans today is not rooted in the past events, but rather in our interpretations and reactions to them. They argue that true independence can only be achieved when we stop reacting to the past and instead accept and reconcile with it. Furthermore, the speaker mentions a number of their books that delve into Mexican history and psychology, inviting the audience to explore these topics further.

02:00:00 - 02:05:00

The video titled "HERNAN CORTES Y EL TRAUMA DE LA CONQUISTA" featured a speakers' thank you note where they expressed gratitude for the recording of the event and thanks to all the participants and organizers. They mentioned plans to share the recording with family and friends and emphasized the importance of the speaker's vision. The speaker also urged people to donate to the Down foundation and invited them to follow the upcoming virtual courses on social media. The section ended with appreciation from participants and well wishes from different locations. A second section featured the speaker: they thanked the audience for their support and expressed appreciation for their presence, likening their work to a "hug." The speaker wished everyone a nice day.

  • 02:00:00 In this section, the speaker expresses gratitude for the recording of the event and thanks all the participants and organizers. They mention that the recording will be sent via email and express their support for the Down foundation. They also commend the speaker for their excellent speech and mention plans to share the recording with family and friends. The speaker emphasizes the importance of the speaker's vision and urges people to donate to the foundation. They also mention upcoming virtual courses and invite everyone to follow them on social media for updates. The section concludes with more appreciation from participants and well wishes from different locations.
  • 02:05:00 In this section, the speaker expresses their gratitude towards the audience for helping them complete almost half of the work they were doing. They refer to their work as a "hug" and greet them with a kind and friendly message, wishing them a nice day.

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