Summary of Edad Media en 10 minutos

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  • 00:00:00 In this section, we learn that the Middle Ages lasted for approximately 1,000 years and it was a period of significant changes for Europe. Societies moved away from the slave production model to a feudal system. While the centralized structures of the Roman Empire fell apart, the feudal system and political fragmentation emerged with the new form of governance. The mix of cultures, including classical, Christian, and Islamic cultures, characterized this period. The rise of Islam especially contributed to the closure of Western Europe to focus on its internal politics. The feudal system was unique to the West, and it became well-established in the 11th century, taking its peak in the 12th and 13th centuries. The establishment of the feudal system from the Normandy dukedom brought forth a new set of obligations that centered on the hierarchical connection between a lord and a vassal, who vowed commitment to their overlords in exchange for domain privileges, alongside military advice and backing.
  • 00:05:00 In this section, we learn about the feudal economy, where agriculture was the foundation for self-consumption. The rural lifestyle was dominant over the urban, and cities emerged around castles, or burgos, where merchants and artisans would gather to trade goods. The rise of the large medieval cities saw the birth of Gothic architecture and universities, where the dominant philosophy was Aristotelian. Monasteries acted as islands of civilization, where copies and preservations of ancient manuscripts were made. While most of the population was illiterate, troubadours played an important role in promoting love and the epic exploits of heroes, and the Crusades were a popular theme. Finally, we learn about the social pyramid in a feudal regime, where the emperor, kings, and church sat atop, followed by high nobles and high clergy, and then low nobles and low clergy. At the bottom of the pyramid were peasants, where the majority of the population sat, with a small percentage being siervos, or serfs, who had fewer rights than other peasants.
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