Summary of El primer peronismo 1945-1955.

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The video is a set of notes about a YouTube video titled "El primer peronismo 1945-1955." The video discusses the early years of Perón's presidency, when he was constantly persecuted by the government. Despite this, the working class remained dedicated to him, and he became a major player in Argentine history during the following years.

  • 00:00:00 In the early 1940s, Argentina was going through a period of political and public disinterest. This "degenerate decade," as it's known, ends with the election of Hipólito Yrigoyen in 1946, who was the last president of the popular experience and democratic era of Hipólito andrigoyen. On June 4, 1943, the military staged a coup d'état and took control of the government, ushering in the beginning of the end of the infamous "blessing of the fields" grant given to landowners in 1929. This new military government had several objectives, including ending fraud, promoting the appearance of a government chosen by the people, maintaining neutrality during the second World War, reducing the influence of foreign entities over domestic politics and economy, and establishing self-sufficiency in energy. Workers in the provinces, who had been settling in the suburbs near factories since the early 1940s, started to organize themselves into labor unions. This was the beginning of the era of "tortilla politics," in which the government began to focus on social issues such as unemployment, poverty, and inequality. Behind this government was a secret military lodge known as the "Golf Group," made up of high-
  • 00:05:00 In 1944, Perón becomes president of Argentina after a long and difficult political journey. His first few years in office are marked by great privations for the Argentine people, until he arrives in Buenos Aires in 1955 after 15 years of struggle. At first, Perón is mostly known for being an actress and radio and theater actor. On January 22, 1944, he is introduced to the public at Luna Park, in Buenos Aires, when he kisses actress Hilda Sánchez on stage. This event marks the beginning of a new and dramatic phase in his life, which changes the course of Argentine politics. One of Perón's most important achievements during this time is the creation of the "Peón Statute," which protects workers in the rural areas. This is in direct opposition to the goals of his predecessor, who is removed from office in 1944. Perón takes his place as president, while also holding the positions of Secretary of Labor and Prevision, and Vice President of the Nation. At the same time, Perón is constantly fighting against opposition from all sides of the political spectrum. His policies of social reform, which are seen as threatening to the interests of his opponents, result in a growing number of enemies. Some of
  • 00:10:00 In 1945, Perón was elected president of Argentina, after campaigning on a platform of uniting the country's classes. His enemies, united by their intense hatred of Perón, soon gathered around him, and he was quickly successful in rallying support from the military, rural landowners, and major media outlets. Under Perón's presidency, the country's economy began to recover from the war, and his social policies improved the welfare of the nation's working class. However, Perón's opponents were able to unite to oppose him, and in 1946 he was defeated in a fair election by a coalition of traditional political parties. After the election, Perón remained in office as president, but began to build a political coalition across the country. In June 1946, he was succeeded by his vice president, Héctor José Cámpora. Perón's legacy lives on in Argentina today, as his ideas of class collaboration and state-sponsored socialism continue to be popular among the nation's working class.
  • 00:15:00 In 1945, after the end of World War II, Argentina was in a favorable economic situation, which made Peron's plans for quick success possible. The new government's first economic plan, the Quinquennial Plan, proposed changing the country's economic profile from an exclusively agricultural exporter to an industrial economy. This was crucial, as expanding the domestic market was essential to incorporating consumption into the working classes, among others. Foreign investment was now seen as a bad thing, and large numbers of businesses were nationalized. The Central Bank, telephone companies, electric utilities, and railroads were all brought under state control. Thousands of public works were undertaken to provide energy for an industrial sector that was now building planes, cars, and locomotives. During the Peronist first government, construction was completed in Argentina of 217,000 homes for working-class families, with the support of Eva Perón's foundation. 1943 also saw the opening of 8,000 schools, 4300 hospitals, and an increase in the consumption of goods and services related to worker welfare. The number of union members quadrupled, and new political doctrines were developed. Peron's electoral campaign of 1949 was successful, and he was inaugurated as Argentina's first president with a new cabinet. However
  • 00:20:00 In the early years of Peronism, 1945-1955, Argentina was hit with two years of terrible drought that ruined crops and killed livestock. This Proto-Peronism phenomenon, which was inflationary and very particular in 1946-1949, grew so much the purchasing power of workers and there were so many Argentines that Peronism became a part of the consumption that business owners and merchants, instead of producing more to satisfy the demand, increased prices and inflation skyrocketed to unusual limits. Beginning in the 1950s, the new question on everyone's mind was who would be Peron's running mate. By this point, you would know that one key figure in Peron's relationship with his supporters was his enemies - the most reactionary sectors of the military - in 1950. Evita avoids having to face this by having only 31 years when she resigns from her honorary presidency of the Argentine Workers' Union in September 1951. General Benjamin Menéndez, an attempted military coup leader, tries to take over on November 11th, 1951, but is eventually defeated. On June 4th, 1952, Evita makes her last public appearance before being elected president. A few weeks later, on July 26th, she learns of her husband's death.
  • 00:25:00 In the early years of Perón's presidency, the government enacted an amnesty and released 4,000 political prisoners. However, the cordial relationship between the government and the Catholic church had deteriorated, and Perón's exaltation of himself as a spiritual leader caused deep resentment among more conservative sectors of the Catholic clergy. The crisis intensified when President Perón launched a series of measures that affected the interests of the Catholic episcopate--his prima and mandatory religious education law were among these. He promulgates a divorce law and approves a project to reform the Constitution to separate church and state. The conflict quickly erupts into full-blown conflict, despite Perón's efforts to prevent it, when opponents of his government mobilize in solidarity with the Catholic church, including those historically anti-clerical like the socialist and communist parties. On 16 June 1955, at noon, an air force squadron of 30 planes carrying marines and airmen arrives in Buenos Aires to execute Perón, but the first bomb detonates prematurely, killing only 12 people. That same day, Perón delivers a televised address in which he declares himself Argentina's spiritual leader. The crisis worsens when Perón launches a series of measures that affect the interests of the Catholic episcopate. On
  • 00:30:00 This video features clips from historical footage of Perón and his supporters during the early years of his rule, when he was constantly persecuted by the government. Despite this, the working class remained dedicated to him, and he became a major player in Argentine history during the following years.

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