Summary of Por la senda liberal (Memoria de España 20/26)

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This YouTube video features a musical performance of "Por la senda liberal (Memoria de España 20/26)," a piece written by Ponzano in the early 1900s. The song commemorates Spain's progress towards democracy, with images of the country's landmarks and symbols such as the Constitution and the flag. The song represents the hope of the liberals of achieving a nation of equal citizens under the law.

  • 00:00:00 In 1823, Spanish liberals, who had fled Fernando VII's repressive rule, emigrated to two different countries - France and England. Those who went to England chose to settle in cities near Spain, such as Toulouse or Bordeaux. From there, they awaited the opportunity to return to their country. However, for many of those living in Spain at the time, life was really just a series of biberones (bottles) - fathers didn't care about their children, no matter what their parents' political backgrounds had been. In 1826, the royal reformist government's policies provoked a real conservative reaction among the ultras called realists. These reactionaries, who had supported the previous liberal government, now became the opposition's strongest force. In 1829, the premature death of Fernando VII's third wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony, increased the chances of succession for the infante don Carlos, Fernando's brother. The war of agraviados (those aggrieved), which began in Cataluña in 1829, became more intense as a result. This movement of rural rebellion was known as the war of the aggrieved. In 1833, the newly chosen king, Carlos I, promulgated a new constitution that
  • 00:05:00 In 1831, General Torrijos and 50 of his supporters attempted to stage a coup, but their plot was foiled and all of them were executed. This event led to the reinstatement of the law of succession, which prevented women from ascending to the throne. Six months later, Fernando VII married his fourth wife, his niece María Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, who was just 23 years old. The wedding took place in Aranjuez and was celebrated with popular celebrations. Four months later, Fernando VII annouced that he was pregnant with the queen's child. To preemptively secure his daughter's access to the throne, Fernando VII dismissed his most extremist ministers and turned to more moderate liberals in an effort to win their support. However, the new reformist government's efforts to secure the throne for the infante don Carlos, Fernando VII's illegitimate son, were unsuccessful, and in 1833 he expelled his brother's son from Spain. In order to ensure the succession of his daughter, the queen swore allegiance to her uncle as prince of Asturias. This attempt to secure the throne for the infante don Carlos failed, and in 1834 Fernando VII decided to dismiss his more reformist ministers and turn to more conservative ones
  • 00:10:00 In 1833, Spanish King Fernando VII died after a long reign during which he had begun the process of transitioning from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. This transition was challenged by a series of rebellions led by carlist factions, which would last for seven years. Meanwhile, Queen Maria Carolina, Fernando VII's widow, took on the role of regent until Isabel, Fernando VII's daughter, reached the age of majority. The queen needed to manage the country while also dealing with the carlist rebellions. She turned to the liberals for help, and they formed a government with her as its leader. The liberals' goal was to convert the absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy, and they worked to reform Spain's economy. However, their plan was opposed by the radical liberals, who wanted a true constitution. The radical liberals were unsuccessful in their attempt to get a constitution enacted, and their movement would soon fade away. One of the liberals' main goals was to create a stable government after years of political turmoil. They selected Francisco Martínez de la Rosa to lead the transition from monarchy to liberalism. The Statute of Autonomy, which was created as a result of this effort, would not be fully implemented for several years
  • 00:15:00 In 1834, the liberal moderate Javier de Burgos begins centralizing and modernizing the Spanish government. This process creates 49 provinces, which remain largely unchanged today. In 1835, the carlist rebellion begins, and the liberal-leaning army under General Tomás de Zumalacárregui quickly defeats the carlist forces. Zumalacárregui becomes notorious for his brutal tactics, and his campaign results in the deaths of thousands of people. In 1836, the carlist rebels attempt to retake Bilbao again, but are repelled by liberal forces. That same year, General Espartero defeats the carlist rebels in the Battle of Lutxana, and Bilbao is finally captured. The carlist rebellion slowly fades away after these successes, and by 1837 most of Spain is under liberal control.
  • 00:20:00 In this video, Mendizabal, the new president of the liberal moderated faction, announces plans to nationalize church property and sell it off in public auctions. This is in response to widespread clerical support of the carlist cause. Other major losers of the desamortizacion are small landowners and agricultural laborers, who are now proletarians. The last to be hurt by Mendizabal's policies are art collectors and monasteries, which are pillaged and abandoned by the new owners. The liberal government's inability to control its territory and its slow response to political reforms lead to a Carlist uprising in 1836.
  • 00:25:00 This video recalls the history of Spain from 1812 to 1837, when the liberal-progressive constitutions were adopted. The most important event during this time was the restoration of the constitution in 1812, which was saved by the [__] sisters. In 1837, more moderate constitutions were approved, which were similar to those in other European countries. This liberal constitution was made to the measure of the radical liberals, establishing national sovereignty, the separation of powers, and the secularity of the state. Individual rights were recognized, but the crown's role in the political process was increased. The carlist rebellion continued for another year, until it was finally defeated by the liberal army. After the war, the country entered a period of peace and modernization. This led to the rise of the Romantic movement in Spain. The carlist general Cabrera continued the war for another year, until he was defeated and fled to exile. The new liberal constitution, which was implemented following the war, granted freedom of expression and allowed for more open debate. This period of peace and progress was short-lived, as the carlist movement continued to exist in secret. In 1839, the faction led by General Cabrera won the war, and they were able to suppress all
  • 00:30:00 This video discusses the history of Spanish newspapers, focusing on the Modelo periodical, which is credited with being the first major Spanish newspaper. The article discusses the various political factions in Spain at the time, and how the press played a role in animating political debate. The author points out that, even though the Franco regime suppressed the press, the memory of this period is still alive in the form of romanticized portrayals of Spain in works of fiction, such as Carmen by Bizet.
  • 00:35:00 In this video, the importance of elections is discussed, and it is shown that almost always, the same party wins elections. Citizens who pay taxes can only vote in elections for which they are registered, and only up to 100,000 Spaniards at the best. The number of registered voters is gradually increased, while the number of registered voters who are considered progressives is gradually decreased. In 1840, the war against the Carlist rebels was renewed, and this battle between the progressives and the moderates began to play out in the political arena. At this time, the progressives hold the majority of government positions. The law that they are trying to pass, which would make mayors elected by the city's residents instead of chosen by the residents, is met with strong opposition from the progressive faction. Queen regent Maria Christina, who has always been more inclined to the moderate liberalism, vetoes the law. General Espartero, on behalf of the progressives, leads a public protest against the queen. With the help of the military and the people, Espartero eventually overcomes the queen's opposition and is able to rule autocratically. The general's popularity causes the moderate liberals to unite with the progressives in order to remove him from power. Espartero is
  • 00:40:00 In 1843, the architect Don Narciso Pascual Colomer won a competition to design the National Memorial in Madrid, which would commemorate the Spanish Republic's victory over Napoleon. The memorial would be a dignified building, simple and severe in character, and would cost nearly 15 million reales. The queen Isabel II was thirteen years old when the project was announced, and the first stone was laid on October 10, 1843. The liberal regime had been firmly established by this point, and the bourgeoisie had become the new aristocracy of society. This has led to the loss of nobility's power, but it has retained its rural properties and some of its former social privileges. Along with the nobility, a new group of landowners had arisen during the liberal revolution – land speculators who had bought their land in land auctions of the desamortización. They form a powerful bourgeoisie agrarian. In the major cities, and at the head of the economic reconstruction that was underway, the liberal Moderates positioned themselves as the business class. This included financiers, industrialists, and contractors working for the state. All of these social groups had political sympathies with the Moderates, and they all placed their trust in
  • 00:45:00 This video reviews the history of Spain from the 1920s to the 1950s, focusing on the liberal policies of Narváez. The moderated government continues with its policy of making Spain a nation through different means, promoting equal laws for all Spaniards, centralizing administration, and modernizing taxes. One of these policies is the naming of a new Minister of Finance, Alejandro Munde, whose fiscal reform begins by giving priority to direct taxes and ending regional peculiarities. This decision of equalizing all land in Spain has a exception for the provinces of Navarra and Valencia, where the moderated government decides to respect some of the feudal privileges to avoid the bourgeoisie, which is allied with the regionalists, from switching to carlismo. Scenes like this, of the inauguration of the Gijón-Sama railway in 1848, are starting to be repeated throughout Spain, as the first train circulates between Barcelona and Mataró. The development of the railway is vital for Spain's economy and national integration. The moderated government is very interested in its development, and approves laws to help it develop. One of these is the law mandating that school instruction be compulsory for all children, which conflicts with the poverty of many municipalities in which the
  • 00:50:00 This YouTube video features a musical performance of "Por la senda liberal (Memoria de España 20/26)," a piece written by Ponzano in the early 1900s. The song commemorates Spain's progress towards democracy, with images of the country's landmarks and symbols such as the Constitution and the flag. The song represents the hope of the liberals of achieving a nation of equal citizens under the law. The song is performed in the Parliament's hall of sessions, in the presence of Queen Isabel II, who is seated on her throne with the Constitution in her hand. The impressive list of Spanish intellectuals who have passed through the hall includes Jovellanos, Campomanes, and many others. Today, no single session of Parliament has been lost, and none of the great names in Spanish history have been forgotten.

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