Summary of El Porfiriato (Cap. 5)

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The YouTube video discusses the Porfiriato, a time period in Mexico's history when Porfirio Díaz was the country's dictator. Díaz made some notable advancements during his rule, such as the strengthening of the state and greater economic development. However, his autocratic government also produced many injustices that eventually led to the Mexican Revolution of 1910.

  • 00:00:00 Since 1876, Porfirio Díaz, a military man, was the dictator of Mexico, and during his rule, he managed to make some notable advancements for the country, such as the strengthening of the state and a greater economic development. However, his autocratic government also produced many injustices that eventually led to the Mexican Revolution of 1910. Díaz ruled Mexico for 34 years and is known as the Porfiriato. One of the most significant changes during his time was the establishment of a strong government that was able to control the different groups vying for power. This was done by organizing the army and subjecting the major military leaders to a system of discipline so that rebellions and uprisings would cease. Díaz's efforts helped to end the constant fighting that had plagued Mexico since the country's independence struggle began. Díaz was a great benefactor of humanity, and his work in creating new sources of happiness, wealth, and prosperity for the human race is still remembered and admired today. As one of the most powerful men of his time, his work in helping to build modern Mexico is an important part of Mexican history.
  • 00:05:00 In the 19th century, Porfirio Díaz ruled Mexico with an iron fist, thanks to his political concessions, good business practices, and sometimes by force of arms. He was able to make deals with the tribal chiefs and governors who controlled the different regions of the country. The other powers, ignoring the Constitution that obligated him to govern alongside the Congress and the judicial power, imposed his authority either good or bad, depending on his mood. For example, the Catholic Church found in Porfirio a president who allowed it to regain a part of its assets and influence in education. Don Porfirio's wife, Doña Carmen Romero Rubio, was just as active in politics as many of the government officials were often seen at religious ceremonies that were supposedly forbidden by the Constitution. In return, the ecclesiastical hierarchy staunchly backed Don Porfirio's regime. Kids had a lot of fun during Porfirio Díaz's time. The church wanted its children to have fun too, because he assured them that these were dangerous times for simple souls. From the most corrupt mayor all the way up to the very eminent businessmen or landowners, they all capitulated to the central government, allowing Díaz to
  • 00:10:00 During the Porfiriato, Mexican railroads played a significant role in stimulating economic growth. The railroads connected Mexico City with the port of Veracruz and extended beyond the capital city to more important cities and regions. This development together with new commercial codes that favored investment and reduced taxes allowed many regions to develop economically for the first time. In the end, however, the Porfiriato would come to an end with the Mexican Revolution.
  • 00:15:00 The video discusses the Porfiriato, a time period in Mexico where the properties of the Catholic church were owned by hacendados, who were generally wealthy individuals who sometimes preferred to live in cities delegating command of the hacienda to managers and administrators. There also existed small landowners who had benefited from the distribution of land or activity that stimulated haciendas at the higher levels. In the lower level were peasants acasillados, almost always peasants working on hacendados' farms for the rest of their lives due to debts that were impossible to pay even over several generations. This situation was predominant in the center and south of the country, but was different in the north where the labor shortage in the north-western region often resulted in workers moving to where they could be paid the best and had the opportunity to find better opportunities in mining or in Europe. Cities in the country grew and became more modernized with the construction of public squares, markets, theaters, and streets. Along with the introduction of water, sewage, and public lighting services, which seemed to make justice to the proud slogan of Porfirio Díaz "order and progress," this new class of urbanites expressed the tensions of the Porfiriato most clearly in
  • 00:20:00 In 1910, Mexican President Porfirio Díaz announced that he would not run for reelection, leading to a political revolution that would soon take place. The conditions of life for many Mexicans were canceled during the Porfiriato. The demands of social justice would soon join the demands of an emerging middle class composed of merchants, professionals, and farmers who demanded space to participate in politics of the nation. However, the Porfiriato was old autocratic and closed to the new times and new ideas in 1910, and President Díaz had 80 years old. His cabinet members averaged 67 years old. In 1908, in an interview with the American journalist James Creelman, Díaz declared that he would not run for reelection and that Mexico was prepared to elect its own leaders freely. Additionally, the liberal Mexican party led by the brothers Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón, as well as the national antireeleccionist party promoted by Francisco and Madero believed at first in the authenticity of that call for transformation. However, President Díaz would not fulfill his promise, leading Bernardo Reyes to withdraw his candidacy and imprison Francisco and Madero, who was then forced to withdraw his candidacy. Díaz would return to be elected president

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