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This video discusses the various models of the atom that have been proposed throughout history, from Democritus' model to the quantum mechanical model. It explains how each model was developed and what new discoveries led to the development of new models. Ultimately, the quantum mechanical model is the most accurate representation of the atom, as it takes into account the behavior of electrons and the exclusion principle.

**00:00:00**Atomic models are graphical representations of the structure and function of atoms. There have been numerous models throughout history, as the idea of the atom as the fundamental building block from which matter is made was born thousands of years ago. New scientific discoveries were incorporated into new models as technology allowed, until today, when the correct model has been determined through microscopy. The models discussed in this video are Democritus' atomic model, Dalton's atomic model, Thomson's atomic model, and the "raisin pudding" model of Thomson, which assumed that the atom was made of a solid sphere with a positive charge (protons) on which the neutrons (negative charge) were randomly distributed.**00:05:00**In 1911, Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment that demonstrated that the atom had a very small, highly condensed nucleus. Based on this result, he developed the Atomic Model, which replaced Thomson's model. Bohr's model, developed in 1913, solved certain problems with Rutherford's model. Sommerfeld's model, developed in 1916, allowed for the understanding of the behavior of atoms with more than one electron.**00:10:00**The quantum mechanical model of the atom is based on the Schrödinger equation, which allows for the calculation of the probability of finding an electron in a certain point of an atom. Each electron in an atom has specific quantum numbers that determine its direction and movements. The exclusion principle, first proposed by physicist Wolfgang Pauli, states that no two electrons in an atom have identical quantum numbers.

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