Summary of Bloque 4. ⚜️Reformismo Borbónico 1700-1788

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This video discusses the Bourbon dynasty in Spain and the reforms that were enacted during their reign. It covers the development of Bourbon reformism, the introduction of black slaves to Spanish colonies, and the decline of Spanish imperialism in Europe.

  • 00:00:00 This video discusses the reigns of the first Bourbon kings, starting with Philip IV and moving through Louis XIV. It covers the development of Bourbon reformism, culminating in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. It also covers the introduction of black slaves to Spanish colonies, and the decline of Spanish imperialism in Europe.
  • 00:05:00 During the reign of King Felipe V, the reformist Borbón dynasty takes steps to strengthen the monarchy's power. Among these measures are the creation of offices known as "secret ministries," which are the predecessors of modern ministries. Other important reforms undertaken during this period include the reform of taxation, the improvement of roads and canals, and the introduction of the superintendent system, which was opposed by the privileged classes. One of Felipe V's ministers, the Marqués de Ensenada, is particularly noteworthy for his work in reforming the economy and society. In 1753, he registers the wealth and possessions of each taxpayer in a valuable historical document known as the "Catastro de Esenada." This allows for a detailed historical portrait of society and the economy of the time to be painted. Felipe V died in 1759, after a long reign during which he achieved several notable reform goals. His eldest son, Charles III, succeeded him to the Spanish throne. Charles III was a reform-minded monarch who maintained Spain's neutrality in the war of independence being fought in America by England and France. His notable achievements include the signing of the third pact of family unity in 1761, which regained Minorca and Gibraltar for Spain, as well as the
  • 00:10:00 During the 1700s, there were profound changes in society as the elimination of social classes and economic equality as the suppression of feudalism and the elimination of fiscal privileges or national or popular sovereignty against absolute monarchy with divine basis is true. However, European monarchies only adopted those enlightened and reformist ideas that interested them, overlooking the deeper changes in society and power. As a result, they were known as despots of the enlightened, such as Carlos III. Carlos III was one of them, and three of his ministers - esquilache, who arrived from Italy seeing the dirty and pestilent capital city, and the two who arrived from the American colonies - are particularly noteworthy. Esquilache began introducing urbanistic forms of reform even before he freed the grain trade to avoid speculation. His most famous and successful reform, which resulted in a riot in Madrid in 766 known as the Esquilache massacre, was the measure that prohibited certain wide-brimmed hats and coats with a high feathering on the pretext of preventing theft and murders. The people of Madrid seethed and Carlos III reversed the policy. He opened an investigation to find the causes of the riot and the king's report blamed the Jesuits exclusively. In 17
  • 00:15:00 In the 1700s, Spain broke its monopoly on trade in the Americas, with Barcelona being the biggest beneficiary. In 1778, Carlos III created a new, free trade zone for more Spanish and American ports.

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