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In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses complexity, how it relates to the universe, and how our perception of reality is shaped by our understanding of space and time. He explains that consciousness is an extension of our sensory experience, and that we are computationally bounded observers who are only sensitive to a certain subset of features of the universe.

**00:00:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the concept of complexity, how it arises in nature, and how it can be modeled using computational primitives. He also discusses how programs can be used to model systems in nature.**00:05:00**In this video, Stephen Wolfram explains how he was able to discover that even with very simple rules, it's possible to get complicated behavior. He highlights one example in particular, rule 30, which is a cellular automaton rule. Despite being simple on the surface, this rule can generate incredibly complex patterns. Wolfram explains that this complexity is a result of computational irreducibility, which is the concept that even with simple rules, it's still possible to generate complex behavior. He also discusses a challenge that he has been working on for some time, namely proving that the center column of rule 30 doesn't repeat. If successful, this would pave the way for further research into complexity andrule 30 in particular.**00:10:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the idea of Complexity and its origins in the early 1980s. He argues that Complexity is something intrinsic to the universe, and that it cannot be generated from randomness.**00:15:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the complexity of the universe and how it relates to the question of why it exists. He explains that the universe is made of fundamental particles that are explained by a model of physics called the hypergraph model. He goes on to say that this model is applicable to a wide range of disciplines and that its strength is that it allows us to apply principles that we have successfully discovered in other fields to new areas of research.**00:20:00**Stephen Wolfram explores the concept of computational irreducibility, which is the property that certain aspects of the natural world are beyond our current understanding. He explains that this randomness is what leads to the second law of thermodynamics, as well as other phenomena. The physics project is focused on understanding the universe as a giant network of atoms.**00:25:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how complex structures such as space are made of smaller, more basic units. The calculation for the elementary length is based on a number of constants which are known to physicists. This calculation suggests that at the Planck scale, the structure of space time is about to fall apart.**00:30:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how the universe is constantly being rewritten, and how this is due to the existence of consciousness. He explains that the laws of the universe are a consequence of our consciousness, and that this is one of the key aspects of our understanding of the universe.**00:35:00**Stephen Wolfram explains how our perception of reality is shaped by our understanding of space and time as interconnected, causal entities. Even though we can't see everything that's happening in the universe, we can still infer causal relationships by examining the network of elementary events that make up the causal graph. Causal invariance ensures that the causal graph is the same no matter which order events are arranged in, proving that space and time are not the same thing.**00:40:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses complexity and the fabric of reality in a Lex Fridman podcast. He says that until something is updated, it has no idea what else has happened. He goes on to say that we only know the relationships between things that happened, and that consciousness emerges from this observer. Quantum mechanics is an extreme version of these issues, and one must think things through carefully to understand it.**00:45:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the complexity of reality, how it is that we think definite things happen in the universe, and how quantum mechanics becomes a story of how a branching brain perceives a branching universe. He explains that consciousness is an extension of our sensory experience, and that we are computationally bounded observers who are only sensitive to a certain subset of features of the universe.**00:50:00**Stephen Wolfram talks about the concept of intelligence and how it is much broader than just being able to perform computations. He goes on to say that consciousness is a step down from intelligence and that there are limitations to what we can perceive. He talks about how intelligence is connected to a human brain and how it is based on the ability to have a single thread of time and be computationally bounded. Wolfram talks about how the experience of the world is based on these three things, and how we deduce the laws of physics from it.**00:55:00**According to the author, consciousness arises as an illusion due to the limitations of our human scales, and typical human beings experience the universe in a very different way than those at a more elementary level.

In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses how complexity and the fabric of reality affects various aspects of our lives, including time dilation, consciousness, and the universe itself. He explains how understanding the complexity of reality can help us to understand consciousness, and how the universe is a rule-based system that is made up of all possible formal systems.

**01:00:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how complexity and the fabric of reality affects our perception of consciousness. He points out that, while photons are a boring example, anything with a complex rule-based behavior is equivalent in computations to something more simple, such as a rock. He discusses the principle of computational equivalence and how it applies to the idea of human consciousness being special or not.**01:05:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how complex systems such as the weather, pulsars, and magnetospheres have a mind of their own, which is related to consciousness. He also talks about how to conceive of a universe that is different from the one we have and whether or not artificial intelligence would have agency.**01:10:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how the complexity of reality can be understood by humans, and how understanding this complexity can help in understanding consciousness. He also discusses the concept of immersion, and how it can be applied to understanding the complexity of reality.**01:15:00**In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses how complexity and the fabric of reality affects time dilation, which is the phenomenon of time running slower for observers moving relative to the universe's clock.**01:20:00**In this video, Stephen Wolfram explains how physical space and quantum mechanics are related. He also discusses the maximum entanglement speed in branchial space.**01:25:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how complexity and the fabric of reality may make it difficult to make definite predictions about many-body quantum mechanical systems. He gives an example of the quantum zeno effect and how it may allow us to measure the maximum entanglement speed. Finally, he discusses how dimension fluctuations in the early universe may still be detectable.**01:30:00**Stephen Wolfram explains how the universe is uniform and connected, and how the inflation theory helps to explain this. He also discusses how the complexity of the universe may preclude us from making predictions versus explanations.**01:35:00**Stephen Wolfram explains how complex mathematical models can provide a machine code for reality, which can be used to understand how the universe works. He also discusses how the question of why the university allows researchers to use such models is still unanswered.**01:40:00**Stephen Wolfram explains the concept of the "roulette object," which is a mathematical structure that connects to ideas in higher category theory. He goes on to say that the universe is running all possible rules and that it's not particularly special. He explains that the resolution of the matter is the realization that the universe is running all possible rules.**01:45:00**Stephen Wolfram explains that our perception of the universe is based on where we are in rule space, and that even if we were to move to a different location in rule space, the universe would still be the same. He goes on to say that this ruliad is, in a sense, a super universe.**01:50:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the concept of consciousness, and how it can be more fundamental than we think. He also discusses the idea that consciousness could be existant at the level of atoms of space, and how this would be like experiencing the world from a different point of view.**01:55:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the concept of a "rule-based" universe, which is one that is made up of all possible formal systems. He goes on to discuss the difficulty of explaining why the universe exists, and how the concept of a model for the universe can help in that process.

In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses his theory of complexity and how it applies to reality. He defines complexity as the "enmeshed running of all possible rules" and explains how it relates to the formal definition of a complex system. He goes on to say that the existence of a complex system is not a matter of choice, but rather comes about as a consequence of the formal definition of such a system. He also discusses his collaboration with Charles Hoskinson, creator of Cardano, and how their work is related to blockchain technology.

**02:00:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the concept of complexity, which he defines as the "enmeshed running of all possible rules." He explains that the existence of a complex system is not a matter of choice, but rather comes about as a consequence of the formal definition of such a system. He goes on to say that the hyper-ruliad, a hypothetical rule-based universe, does exist, but is ultimately unknowable due to the existence of an event horizon that separates it from our own.**02:05:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the idea of a "rulid" which is the set of all possible rule coordinates. He argues that because we exist as part of this rulid, it necessarily exists. The question of why the universe exists is something that has been a source of surprise to him. He suggests that because all possible formal rules when combined produce a definite structure, it must exist for us to be able to interpret it as reality.**02:10:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the concept of formal systems and how they can be used to reason about the world. He argues that, by the time all possible formal systems exist, it is like the universe is all things that can be imagined, but not all computations that can be imagined. He says that one consequence of this is that mathematics must exist, since it is the only thing that is not a formal system.**02:15:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the complexity of reality, and how mathematics is built up from basic axioms. He talks about the idea that mathematics is an observer in a meta-mathematical space, and how it can be difficult to understand the underlying dynamics. He mentions the concept of 'matter mathematics,' which is a way of understanding mathematics as a collection of statements connected by proofs. He explains that one can be in different slices of meta-mathematical space at any given moment, and that mathematicians are constantly moving through this space to deduce new statements.**02:20:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the complexity of mathematics, how it is similar to the complexity of the physical universe, and how different proofs in mathematics can be considered as branches of a single path. He also discusses the idea of a black hole in mathematics, and how it is analogous to the event of time stopping in physical reality.**02:25:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the concept of complexity and how it relates to the fabric of reality. He discusses how complex things like cities can exist on a spherical earth, but there is an underlying space that is meta-mathematical. He challenges mathematicians to find a way to deform a proof into another proof, and to explore meta-mathematical spaces.**02:30:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the idea of complexity and how it relates to the concept of multi-computation. He explains that multi-computation is a new epoch in the history of models of things, and that it is similar to the way non-deterministic computation works.**02:35:00**Chemistry is the study of the physical and chemical properties of substances. Chemists use mathematical equations to predict how a particular set of chemicals will interact and create new compounds. Simulations of these reactions are often used to test hypotheses about how different compounds interact.**02:40:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how complexity and the fabric of reality can be studied through the study of chemical reactions. He goes on to say that this complexity can be observed at a physical level and that one possible chemical observer is all you care about.**02:45:00**In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses how Complexity theory may be behind the understanding of how the immune system works. He discusses how a network of interactions between different types of immune system cells could be the key to understanding how the immune system works.**02:50:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how complexity can be found in the fabric of reality, and how it can relate to the dynamics of a network. He goes on to say that one potential endpoint for complexity may be the ability to model and simulate biology accurately.**02:55:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses his theory of complexity and how it applies to reality. He discusses his collaboration with Charles Hoskinson, creator of Cardano, and how their work is related to blockchain technology. Wolfram also reflects on his history of alternating between basic science and technology, and how it is interesting that so much computational content is still relevant today.

In this video, Stephen Wolfram discusses the complexity of reality and how it can be explained through computation. He also talks about the potential for blockchain technology to help us understand and manage complex financial systems.

**03:00:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the complexity of reality, and how certain aspects of it can be explained through the use of multi-computation. He also discusses the potential implications of blockchain technology on the overall economy.**03:05:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the complexity of reality and how it ties in to economics. He explains that, in order to understand economic phenomena, one must have a foundational understanding of transactions between entities. He also discusses the potential for blockchain technology to be used for a distributed, generalization of blockchain.**03:10:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the complexity of reality and the challenges of trying to model it in a way that is useful for making predictions. He notes that one of the ways to approach this is to use physics-like concepts to create a "distributed analog blockchain." He also discusses the potential for using computational contracts to represent agreements between people. In the context of cryptocurrencies, he notes that Wolverine language is well-suited for this task due to its ability to represent complex mathematical concepts. Finally, he discusses the potential for blockchain analytics to help regulators and law enforcement officials understand complex financial systems.**03:15:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses how computing has evolved, and how blockchain technology is another step in this progression. He explains how the permanence of a blockchain is incentivized by the payment of commissions to those who store data on it.**03:20:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses complexity, how it arises in the computational universe, and how it has helped physicists advance their understanding of the universe.**03:25:00**Stephen Wolfram talks about the idea of complexity, how it has been explored in the past, and how it can be explored further. He also talks about meta-modeling and ruleology, two concepts he has not previously articulated.**03:30:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the origins and foundations of complex systems, which he defines as systems that are composed of simple rules. Ruleology is the study of these rules, and complex systems can be found at many different levels of reality.**03:35:00**Stephen Wolfram discusses the concept of complexity and how it applies to the nature of reality. He also talks about his experience as a tech ceo and how he's learned to manage projects. He then quotes physicist Richard Feynman, who says that nature uses the longest threads to weave her patterns.

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