The video explains the theory of materialism dialectic, which is based on the study of material conditions in society that determine historical processes and future outcomes. In the end, the theory predicts the eventual downfall of capitalism.
00:00:00 The materialism dialectical system is a philosophical analysis of reality, history, and social reality. It was developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the 1840s and is based on the principles of Hegelian theory. Hegel argued that reality is found in the ideal, not in the material world. Marx, in turn, explained history and development in terms of the spirit's evolution, so that all history is the development of ideas. The dialectical method formulates the following schema:
Given that nature and the universe are in constant conflict, ideas also conflict and are subject to struggle. This conflict results in the generation of a superior idea that supersedes the earlier two ideas. This is called a "solution" or " synthesis" in Marxist philosophy. Marx began with these underlying realities and developed his system of analysis, which is very different from that of Hegel because ideas are not independent. Every idea corresponds to a specific period in history, and the people who think ideas are immersed in a physical, social, and economic reality that largely determines their thinking. Marx focused on the issue of wealth in society, which is the study of how society produces and controls wealth. Marx's main contribution to philosophy is his theory of dialectical materialism, which deals with the
00:05:00 Marx outlines a series of historical phases, each characterized by different modes of production. Mode of production refers to the specific way in which work is organized and the different productive forces available to a society. In the ancient world, for example, there were two groups of people who worked: those who mined rocks, and those who carved wood, grew crops, and ran the agricultural system. Another group of people supervised and organized all of this. And yet another group of people might have been in charge of running the society and setting standards for how people should behave in order to produce goods.
Social organizations during production are always based on the interests of the upper class, which Marx refers to as "class consciousness." This consciousness falsely believes that what is in the upper class' interests is also beneficial for the whole society. This is why the lower classes often confuse their own interests with those of the upper class. For example, many people in the working class or poor class believe that they are helping society by supporting the upper class. This is called the idea of class loyalty.
Classes in different modes of production share common characteristics, including values, customs, and experiences that have been collectively learned. Therefore, in every historical mode of production, there are classes that dominate
00:10:00 In this video, Marx's theory of class struggle is summarized. According to Marx, class struggle always results in the transformation of the economic system, with new classes and systems of social relations being created. The current system of capitalism, which emerged from the decay of feudalism, is an example of this. The bourgeoisie, or capitalist class, owns all the means of production, including land, banks, factories, and mines. The proletariat, or working class, is a class that is oppressed and has no ownership of anything.
00:15:00 The video discusses how the bourgeoisie, a class of capitalists, exploits workers to produce goods and earn profits, which they then use to enrich themselves. This exploitation results in the proletariat, a class of workers, being reduced to poverty. Materialism dialectics posits that the exploitation of one class by another is inherent in capitalist production, and that this exploitation is perpetuated by the workers' own interests being opposed to those of the capitalists. This antagonism between class interests is the root of all the political and social problems that capitalism produces.
00:20:00 In place of the idea-based world, materialism dialectical theory predicts that one day a new type of society will emerge as the bourgeoisie and proletariat wage war on each other, driving the development of productive forces that eventually reveal the contradictions of capitalist society, such as unemployment caused by technological advances. All of capitalism's crises are essentially due to overproduction, and are the result of the development of these same productive forces themselves. This system tends to self-destruct, just like all the other systems of the past. Marxists today argue that capitalism has a historical role to play and should not be opposed, as they see it as a phase in the development of humanity. The proletariat has accomplished a great deal under capitalism, including destroying the capitalist relationships of production and taking control of the means of production. This is socialism, a transitional form of government in which the state becomes the instrument of the proletariat, superseding the previous bourgeois state. This is the period of revolutionary transformation, in which the proletariat moves from one stage to the next in its historical development. As Marx says, "socialism corresponds to this period of transitional development, a form of government in which the state becomes the instrument of the proletariat." This is the stage we are currently in, and communism is the
00:25:00 The video explains the theory of materialism dialectic, which is based on the study of material conditions in society that determine historical processes and future outcomes. In the end, the theory predicts the eventual downfall of capitalism.